October 16, 2018

Constitution of the RSFSR - 1918

Adopted by the Fifth All-Russia Congress of Soviets
10 July 1918

PREAMBLE


The Declaration of Rights of the Working and Exploited People, approved by the Third All-Russia Congress of Soviets in January 1918, together with the constitution of the Soviet Republic approved by the Fifth Congress, make up the single fundamental law of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

This fundamental law becomes effective from the moment of its publication in final form in Izvestia Vserossiiskogo Tsentralnogo Ispolnitelnogo Komiteta. It shall be published by all local organs of Soviet government and prominently displayed in all Soviet institutions.

The Fifth Congress instructs the People's Commissariat for Public Education to introduce in all schools and other educational establishments of the Russian Republic, without exception, the study of the basic provisions of the present constitution, as well as their explanation and interpretation.

Part One: Declaration of Rights of the Working and Exploited People (read Lenin on the deceleration)


CHAPTER ONE

Article 1. Russia is hereby proclaimed a Republic of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. All power, centrally and locally, is vested in these Soviets.

Article 2. The Russian Soviet Republic is established on the principle of a free union of free nations, as a federation of Soviet national republics.

CHAPTER TWO


Article 3. Its fundamental aim being abolition of all exploitation of man by man, complete elimination of the division of society into classes, merciless suppression of the exploiters, socialist organization of society, and victory of socialism in all countries, the Third All-Russia Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies further resolves:

Pursuant to the socialization of land, private land ownership is hereby abolished, and all land is proclaimed the property of the entire people and turned over to the working people without any redemption, on the principles of egalitarian land tenure.

All forests, mineral wealth and waters of national importance, as well as all live and dead stock, model estates and agricultural enterprises are proclaimed the property of the nation.

The Soviet laws on workers' control and on the Supreme Economic Council are hereby confirmed in order to guarantee the power of the working people over the exploiters and as a first step towards the complete conversion of factories, mines, railways and other means of production and transportation into the property of the Soviet Workers' and Peasants' Republic.

The Third Congress of Soviets regards as a first blow at international banking, financial capital, the Soviet law on the annulment of loans negotiated by the governments of the tsar, the landlords and the bourgeoisie and expresses confidence that Soviet power will be advancing steadfastly along this road until the complete victory of an international workers' uprising against the rule of capital.

To ensure the sovereign power of the working people and to rule out any possibility of restoration of the power of the exploiters, the arming of the working people, the creation of a socialist Red Army of workers and peasants, and the complete disarming of the propertied classes are hereby decreed.

CHAPTER THREE

Article 4. Expressing firm determination to wrest mankind from the clutches of finance capital and imperialism, which have in this most criminal of wars drenched the world in blood, the Third Congress of Soviets unreservedly endorses Soviet policy of denouncing the secret treaties, organizing most extensive fraternization with the workers and peasants of the combatant armies and achieving at all costs by revolutionary means a democratic peace for the working people, without annexations of indemnities, on the basis of free self-determination of nations.

Article 5. With the same aim in view, the Third Congress of Soviets insists on a complete break with the barbarous policy of bourgeois civilization, which has built the prosperity of the exploiters in a few chosen nations through the enslavement of hundreds of millions of working people in Asia, in the colonies in general, and in small countries.

Article 6. The Third Congress of Soviets supports the policy of the Council of People's Commissars which has proclaimed the complete independence of Finland, commenced the withdrawal of troops from Persia, and proclaimed freedom of self-determination for Armenia.

CHAPTER FOUR

Article 7. The Third All-Russia Congress of Soviets holds that now, in the hour of the people's resolute struggle against the exploiters, there should be no room for exploiters in any governmental agency. Power must belong fully and exclusively to the working people and their plenipotentiary representatives - the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies.

Article 8. At the same time, endeavouring to create a genuinely free and voluntary, and therefore all the more firm and stable, union of the working classes of all the nations of Russia, the Third Congress of Soviets confines itself to promulgating the fundamental principles of a federation of Soviet republics of Russia, leaving it to the workers and peasants of each nation to decide independently at their own representative congresses of soviets whether they wish to participate in the federal government and in the other federal Soviet institutions, and on what terms.

Part Two: General Provisions of the Constitution of the RSFSR

CHAPTER FIVE

Article 9. The main objective of the constitution of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, designed for the present transitional period, is to establish the dictatorship of the urban and rural proletariat and the poorest peasantry in the form of a powerful All-Russia Soviet Government, with a view to completely suppressing the bourgeoisie, abolishing exploitation of man by man, and establishing socialism, under which there will be neither division into classes nor state power.

Article 10. The Russian Republic is a free socialist society of all the working people of Russia. All power in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic belongs to the entire working population of the country united in urban and rural soviets.

Article 11. The soviets of regions with a distinct mode of living and national composition can unite in autonomous regional unions at the head of which, as at the head of all regional unions that can be eventually formed, stand regional congresses of Soviets and their executive agencies.These autonomous regional unions form, on a federal basis, component parts of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Article 12. Supreme power in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic is exercised by the All-Russia Congress of Soviets, and in the intervals between Congresses by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

Article 13. In order to ensure genuine freedom of conscience for the working people, the church is separated from the State, and the school from the church: and freedom of religious and anti-religious propaganda is recognized for all citizens.

Article 14. In order to ensure genuine freedom of expression for the working people, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic abolishes the dependence of the press on capital, and places at the disposal of the working class and the poor peasantry all the technical and material requisites for the publication of newspapers, pamphlets, books and all other printed matter, and guarantees their unhindered circulation throughout the country.

Article 15. In order to ensure genuine freedom of assembly for the working people, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, recognizing the right of citizens of the Soviet Republic freely to hold assemblies, meetings, processions, etc., places at the disposal of the working class and the poor peasantry all buildings suitable for the holding of public gatherings, complete with furnishing, lighting and heating.

Article 16. In order to ensure genuine freedom of association for the working people, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, having destroyed the economic and political rule of the propertied classes and thereby removed all the obstacles which heretofore, in bourgeois society, prevented the workers and peasants from enjoying freedom of organization and action, renders material and all other assistance to the workers and poorest peasants for purposes of their association and organization.

Article 17. In order to ensure access to knowledge for the working people, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic makes its aim to give the workers and poorest peasants complete all-round and free education.

Article 18. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic declares labour to be the duty of all citizens of the Republic, and proclaims the slogan: 'He who does not work, neither shall he eat!'

Article 19. In order to safeguard the gains of the great workers' and peasants' revolution, the Russian Socialist Federative Republic declares defence of the socialist Fatherland to be the duty of all the citizens of the Republic and introduces universal military service. The honourable right of bearing arms in defence of the revolution is granted only to working people; non-working elements are enlisted for other military duties.

Article 20. Proceeding from the principle of solidarity of the working people of all nations, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic grants full political rights of Russian citizens to foreigners residing in the territory of the Russian Republic for purposes of employment, and belonging to the working class or to the peasantry not employing the labour of others: and it empowers the local Soviets to grant to such foreigners, without any cumbersome formalities, Russian citizenship rights.

Article 21. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic grants the right of asylum to all foreigners subjected to persecution for political and religious crimes.

Article 22. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, recognizing the equality of rights of all citizens, irrespective of their race or nationality, declares the establishment or toleration on this basis of any privileges or advantages, or any oppression of national minorities or restriction of their equality, to be contraventions of the fundamental laws of the Republic.

Article 23. Guided by the interests of the working class as a whole, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic deprives individuals and groups of rights which they utilize to the detriment of the socialist revolution.

Part Three: The Structure of Soviet Government


A. Organization of the central authority

CHAPTER SIX


The All-Russia Congress of Soviets of Workers', Peasants, Cossacks' and Red Army Soldiers' Deputies

Article 24. The All-Russia Congress of Soviets is the supreme authority of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Article 25. The All-Russia Congress of Soviets is composed of representatives of urban Soviets on the basis of one deputy for every 25,000 electors, and representatives of gubernia congresses of Soviets on the basis of one deputy for every 125,000 of the population.

NOTE 1. In the event of a gubernia congress of Soviets not preceding the All-Russia Congress, delegates to the latter are sent directly by uyezd congresses.
NOTE 2. In the event of a regional congress of Soviets directly preceding the All-Russia Congress, delegates to the latter can be sent by the regional congress.

Article 26. The All-Russia Congress of Soviets is convened by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee at least twice a year.

Article 27. An extraordinary All-Russia Congress of Soviets is convened by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee on its own initiative, or on the demand of the Soviets of localities inhabited by at least one-third of the population of the Republic.

Article 28. The All-Russia Congress of Soviets elects the All-Russia Central Executive Committee, to consist of not more than 200 members.

Article 29. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee is fully accountable to the All-Russia Congress of Soviets.

Article 30. In the intervals between Congresses the All-Russia Central Executive Committee is the supreme authority of the Republic.

CHAPTER SEVEN


The All-Russia Central Executive Committee

Article 31. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee is the highest legislative, administrative and supervisory body of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Article 32. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee gives general directives for the activity of the Workers' and Peasants' Government and all organs of Soviet power in the country; unites and co-ordinates legislative and administrative activities, and supervises the implementation of the Soviet constitution and of the decisions of All-Russia Congresses of Soviets and the central bodies of Soviet power.

Article 33. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee examines and approves draft decrees and other proposals submitted by the Council of People's Commissars or by separate departments, and issues its own decrees and ordinances.

Article 34. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee convenes the All-Russia Congress of Soviets, to which it submits an account of its activity and reports on general policy and particular matters.

Article 35. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee appoints the Council of People's Commissars for general management of the affairs of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and departments (People's Commissariats) to be in charge of particular branches of the administration.

Article 36. The members of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee work in the departments (People's Commissariats) or carry out special commissions of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

CHAPTER EIGHT


The Council of People's Commissars

Article 37. The Council of People's Commissars exercises general management of the affairs of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Article 38. In pursuance of this task the Council of People's Commissars issues decrees, ordinances, instructions and generally takes what measures are necessary to ensure the proper course of life of the State.

Article 39. The Council of People's Commissars immediately notifies the All-Russia Central Executive Committee of all its orders and decisions.

Article 40. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee has the right to cancel or suspend any order or decision of the Council of People's Commissars.

Article 41. All decisions and orders of the Council of People's Commissars which are of major general political importance are submitted to the All-Russia Central Executive Committee for consideration and approval.

NOTE. Urgent measures can be taken by the Council of People's Commissars directly.

Article 42. Members of the Council of People's Commissars head the People's Commissariats.

Article 43. Eighteen People's Commissariats are formed:
Foreign Affairs;
Military Affairs;
Maritime Affairs;
Interior;
Justice;
Labour;
Social Security;
Public Education;
Post and Telegraph;
Nationalities Affairs;
Finance;
Transport;
Agriculture;
Trade and Industry;
Food Supply;
State Control;
the Supreme Economic Council;
Public Health.

Article 44. Under the chairmanship of every People's Commissar a board is constituted whose members are confirmed by the Council of People's Commissars.

Article 45. The People's Commissar has the right personally to take decisions on all matters that come within the competence of his commissariat. In the event of its disagreement with a decision of the People's Commissar the board can, without suspending the implementation of the decision, appeal against it to the Council of People's Commissars or the Presidium of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.The same right of appeal belongs to individual members of the board.

Article 46. The Council of People's Commissars is fully accountable to the All-Russia Congress of Soviets and the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

Article 47. The People's Commissars and the boards of the People's Commissariats are fully accountable to the Council of People's Commissars and the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

Article 48. The rank of People's Commissar is given exclusively to members of the Council of People's Commissars, which manages the general affairs of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and cannot be conferred on any other representative of Soviet government either in the centre or in the provinces.


CHAPTER NINE


The Jurisdiction of the All-Russia Congress of Soviets and the All-Russia Central Executive Committee

Article 49. Within the jurisdiction of the All-Russia Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee come all matters of State importance, viz:

Approval and amendment of the Constitution of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.
General guidance of the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Delimitation and modification of frontiers, as well as alienation of parts of the territory of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic or of rights belonging to it.

Delimitation of the boundaries and spheres of jurisdiction of the regional unions of soviets forming part of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as settlement of disputes between them.

Admission of new members into the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and confirmation of secession of parts of the Russian Federation.

General determination of the administrative divisions of the territory of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and confirmation of regional formations.

Establishment and modification of the system of weights and measures and the monetary system on the territory of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Relations with foreign states, declaration of war and conclusion of peace.

Contracting and granting of loans, conclusion of customs and trade treaties and financial agreements.
Determination of the fundamentals and the general plan of the national economy and its branches on the territory of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Approval of the budget of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Establishment of federal taxes and duties.

Definition of the basic principles of organization of the armed forces of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.

Federal legislation, the judicial system and judicial procedure, civil and criminal legislation, etc.
Appointment and dismissal of individual members of the Council of People's Commissars and of the Council of People's Commissars as a whole, as well as confirmation of the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars.

General regulations on the acquisition and loss of Russian citizenship rights and on the rights of foreigners on the territory of the Republic.

The right of amnesty, general and partial.

Article 50. In addition to the matters listed above, the All-Russian Congress of Soviets and the All-Russia Central Executive Committee decide all questions which they find coming within their competence.

Article 51. It is the exclusive prerogative of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets to:
define and amend the basic principles of the Soviet constitution;
ratify peace treaties.

Article 52. The All-Russia Central Executive Committee may decide matters indicated in paragraphs (c) and (h) of Article 49 only when an All-Russian Congress of Soviets cannot be convened.

B. Organization of Local Soviet Authority


CHAPTER TEN


Congresses of Soviets

Article 53. Congresses of Soviets are composed as follows:

Oblast (regional) congresses- of representatives of city Soviets and uyezd congresses, on the basis of one delegate per 25,000 residents, and from cities, one delegate per 5,000 electors, with not more than 500 delegates from the region as a whole; or of representatives of gubernia congresses of soviets, elected on the same basis, if such congresses directly precede the regional congress.

Gubernia (area) congresses of representatives of city Soviets and volost congresses, on the basis of one delegate per 10,000 residents and from cities, one deputy per 2,000 electors, with not more than 300 delegates from the gubernia (area) as a whole. If uyezd congresses of Soviets directly precede the gubernia congress, elections are conducted on the same basis, by uyezd rather than volost congresses.

Uyezd (district) congresses of representatives of village soviets, on the basis of one delegate per 1,000 residents, with not more than 300 delegates from the uyezd (district) as a whole.
Volost congresses of representatives of all village soviets of the volost, on the basis of one delegate for every ten members of a soviet.

NOTE 1. Uyezd congresses are attended by representatives of the Soviets of towns whose population does not exceed 10,000; village soviets of localities with a population of less than 1,000 unite to elect delegates to the uyezd congress.

NOTE 2. Village Soviets having less than ten members send to the volost congress one representative each.

Article 54. Congresses of Soviets are convened by the respective local executive bodies of Soviet authority (executive committees) at their discretion, or on the demand of the Soviets of localities accounting for not less than one-third of the population of the given territorial unit: but in any event at least twice a year in a region, once in every three months in a gubernia or uyezd, and once a month in a volost.

NOTE 1. Uyezd congresses are attended by representatives of the Soviets of towns whose population does not exceed 10,000; village soviets of localities with a population of less than 1,000 unite to elect delegates to the uyezd congress.

NOTE 2. Village Soviets having less than ten members send to the volost congress one representative each.

Article 55. The region, gubernia, uyezd or volost congress of Soviets elects its executive committee, to consist of not more than: (a) 25 members in a region or gubernia; (b) 20 in an uyezd, and (c) 10 in a volost. The executive committee is fully accountable to the congress of Soviets that elected it.

Article 56. Within the boundaries of its region, gubernia, uyezd or volost, the congress of Soviets is the highest authority; in the intervals between congresses this authority is vested in the executive committee.

CHAPTER ELEVEN


The Soviets of Deputies

Article 57. The soviets of deputies are composed as follows:

In cities - on the basis of one deputy per 1,000 of the population, but with not less than 50 and not more than 1,000 members.

In rural localities (villages, Cossack settlements, towns with less than 10,000 residents, auls, hamlets, etc.) - on the basis of one deputy per 100 of the population, but with not less than three and not more than 50 deputies per locality.The term of office of deputies is three months.

Article 58. For day-to-day work, the Soviets of deputies elect, from among their members, executive bodies (executive committees) consisting of not more than five members in villages, and on the basis of one member per fifty deputies, but with not less than three and not more than fifteen members, in cities (not more than forty members in Petersburg and Moscow). The executive committee is fully accountable to the Soviet which elected it.

Article 59. Sessions of the soviet of deputies are convened by the executive committee at its discretion, or on the demand of not less than half of the deputies to the Soviet: but at least once a week in cities and twice a week in rural areas.

Article 60. Within the boundaries of the given locality the soviet or, in the event envisaged in Article 57 (Note), the general meeting of electors, is the highest authority.

CHAPTER TWELVE


The Jurisdiction of Local Bodies of Soviet Rule

Article 61. The regional, gubernia, uyezd and volost bodies of Soviet rule and the soviets of deputies:
Put into effect all decisions of the corresponding higher bodies of soviet rule;
Take all measures to promote the cultural and economic development of the given territory;
Decide all questions of purely local importance (for the given territory);
Co-ordinate all soviet activity within the boundaries of the given territory.

Article 62. The congress of soviets and their executive bodies have the right of control over the activities of the local soviets (i.e. those of regions have the right of control over all the soviets of the given region; those of gubernias, over all the soviets of the given gubernia, with the exception of city soviets not forming parts of uyezd congresses, etc.); the regional and gubernia congresses and their executive committees have, in addition, the right to cancel decisions of the soviets functioning in their localities, notifying, in the most important instances, the central Soviet authority.

Article 63. To ensure fulfillment of the tasks devolving on the organs of Soviet authority, city and village soviets and regional, gubernia, uyezd and volost executive committees set up corresponding departments and appoint their heads.

Part Four: Active and Passive Suffrage

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

ARTICLE 64. The right to elect and to be elected to soviets is enjoyed, irrespective of religion, nationality, sex, domicile, etc. by the following citizens of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic who have reached the age of eighteen by polling day:
  1. All those who earn a living by productive and socially useful labour (as well as persons engaged in housekeeping which enables the former to work productively), viz. wage and salaried workers of all groups and categories engaged in industry, trade, agriculture, etc. and peasants and Cossack farmers who do not employ hired labour for profit;
  2. Soldiers of the Soviet army and navy;
  3. Citizens belonging to categories listed in Paragraphs (a) and (b) of the present article who have been to any degree incapacitated.
  1. NOTE 1. The local soviets may, subject to approval by the central authority, lower the age limit established in the present article.
  1. NOTE 2. As far as resident foreigners are concerned, active and passive suffrage is enjoyed by persons indicated in Article 20 (Part Two, Chapter V).
ARTICLE 65. The right to elect and to be elected is denied to the following persons, even if they belong to one of the categories listed above:

The Conduct of Elections

ARTICLE 66. Elections are held, according to established customs, on days appointed by local Soviets.

ARTICLE 67. Elections are conducted in the presence of an electoral commission and a representative of the local soviet.

ARTICLE 68. In instances when the presence of a representative of Soviet authority is technically impossible, he is replaced by the electoral commission chairman or, in the absence of the latter, by the chairman of the electoral assembly.

ARTICLE 69. The proceedings and results of the election are recorded in a minute signed by the members of the electoral commission and the representative of the soviet.

ARTICLE 70. The detailed procedure for the conduct of elections, and for the participation in them of trade unions and other workers' organizations, is determined by the local soviets in keeping with instructions issued by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

Verification and Revocation of Election Returns

Recall of Deputies

ARTICLE 71. All material pertaining to the conduct of elections is forwarded to the respective soviet.

ARTICLE 72. The soviet appoints a credentials committee to verify the results of the elections.

ARTICLE 73. The credentials committee reports to the soviet on its findings.

ARTICLE 74. The soviet decides the question of confirming disputed candidates.

ARTICLE 75. Should the Soviet reject a candidate, it appoints re-elections.

ARTICLE 76. Should the elections as a whole be found faulty, the question of annuling them is decided by the higher body of soviet rule.

ARTICLE 77. The final instance for annuling elections to soviets is the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

ARTICLE 78. The electors who have sent a deputy to the Soviet have the right to recall him at any time, and to hold new elections, in keeping with the general rules.

Part Five: Budgetary Law

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

ARTICLE 79. The main objective of the fiscal policy of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic in the current transitional period of the dictatorship of the working people is expropriation of the bourgeoisie and preparation of conditions for the universal equality of the citizens of the Republic in the sphere of production and distribution of values. It is therefore aimed at placing at the disposal of the organs of Soviet power all the means necessary for satisfying the local and national needs of the Soviet Republic, in the pursuit of which tasks it will not stop at invading the sphere of the right of private ownership.

ARTICLE 80. The state revenues and expenditures of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic are united in the state budget.

ARTICLE 81. The All-Russian Congress of Soviets or the All-Russia Central Executive Committee determine which revenues and duties accrue to the state budget and which are placed at the disposal of the local soviets, and establish the limits of taxation.

ARTICLE 82. The soviets collect taxes and rates for exclusively local economic needs. The requirements of the state as a whole are met out of resources allocated by the State Treasury.

ARTICLE 83. No expenditures can be made out of the resources of the State Treasury unless provided for in the state budget, or without a special decision of the central authority.

ARTICLE 84. To meet needs of national importance, local soviets are allotted credits by the appropriate People's Commissariats out of State Treasury funds.


ARTICLE 85. All State Treasury credits, and credits approved for local needs, are expanded by soviets strictly as provided for in their budgets, and cannot be used for other purposes without a special decision of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars.

ARTICLE 86. Local soviets draw up half-yearly and yearly estimates of revenues and expenditures for local needs. The estimates of village and volost soviets and soviets of cities participating in uyezd congresses, and those of the uyezd organs of Soviet power, are approved by the respective gubernia and oblast congresses or their executive committees the estimates of city, guberniaand regional bodies of Soviet power are approved by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars.

ARTICLE 87. Should the need arise for expenditures insufficiently provided for in the estimates, or not provided for at all, the soviets apply for additional allocations to the respective People's Commissariats.

ARTICLE 88. In the event of local resources proving insufficient to satisfy local needs, the issue of subsidies or loans to local soviets necessary to cover urgent expenditures is authorized by the All-Russia Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars.

Part Six: The Arms and the Flag of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

ARTICLE 89. 

The Arms of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic consist of a sickle and a hammer with their handles crossed, pointing downwards, gold upon a red field in the sun's rays, and surrounded by a wreath of ears of grain, with the inscriptions:

'Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic', and

Proletarians of all Countries, Unite!'

ARTICLE 90. The flag and ensign of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic is of red cloth with the gold letters 'RSFSR' or the words 'Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic' in the left upper corner near the staff.

Chairman of the Fifth All-Russia Congress of Soviets and of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee, Y. A. SVERDLOV.

Members of the Presidium of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee, G. I. TEODOROVICH, F. A. ROZIN, A. K. MITROFANOV, K. G. MAXIMOV.
Secretary of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee, V. A. AVANESOV.

https://www.prlib.ru