September 14, 2019

Murder of Kirov, Maxim Gorky, Menzhinsky, Kuibyshev and Plot against Lenin

From the Court Proceedings

Entertaining no hope of the overthrow of the Soviet system by means of espionage, wrecking, diversion, and kulak risings, the Right and Trotskyite conspirators, possessed with rage and hatred for the U.S.S.R., proceeded to make preparations for and to commit terrorist acts against leaders of the government and the C.P.S.U. The investigation has established the fact that by direct agreement with the Japanese and German intelligence services, and upon the instructions of enemy of the people L. TROTSKY, the "bloc of Rights and Trotskyites"; engineered and committed a number of terrorist acts against some of the finest people of our country.

The accused RYKOV explained the motives for the adoption of terrorist methods by the " bloc of Rights and Trotskyites" as follows:
"In view of the illegal and conspiratorial character of the counter-revolutionary organization of the Rights, -the absence of any kind of mass basis for its counter-revolutionary activities, and the absence of all hope of arriving at power in any other way, the adoption of terrorist methods and a palace coup detat, in the opinion of the Centre, held out some prospects" (Vol. I, p. 50.)
The accused BUKHARIN, who in the course of the investigation admitted that the "bloc of Rights and Trotskyites" had already adopted terrorist methods in 1932, testified as follows:
"In 1932, too, during a meeting and conversation I had with PYATAKOV, I learnt from him of his meeting with L. SEDOV and his receipt through SEDOV of direct instructions from TROTSKY to adopt terrorist methods against leaders of the Party and the Soviet government. I must also confess that it was then that we virtually consented to an agreement with terrorists, and my conversation with PYATAKOV was an agreement to co-ordinate with TROTSKY our actions directed towards the forcible overthrow of the leadership of the Party and the Soviet government".
(Vol. V, p. 105 reverse,)
The terrorist activities of the conspirators were closely connected with the whole of their defeatist work, which is borne out, for example, by the following testimony of the accused IVANOV:
"Speaking of terrorism, BUKHARIN said that the liquidation, as he expressed it, of the leaders of the Party and the Soviet government. . . would be very important for our accession to power and would facilitate the defeat of the U.S.S.R. in war"(Vol. VII, p. 81.)
In pursuance of the decisions taken in this connection, the conspiratorial bloc widely developed the organization of terrorist groups and the practical preparations for the -perpetration of terrorist acts against leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet government.

This is what the accused RYKOV testified in this connection:
"By that time we had already adopted the path of terror ism as one of the methods of combating the Soviet government. . . , This position of ours took the form of quite definite activity on our part, and in particular on my part, in preparing terrorist acts against members of the Political Bureau,leaders of the party and the government, and , first and foremost, against STALIN, MOLOTOV, KAGANOVICH  and VOROSHILOV. In 1934 I had already given instructions to have the automobiles of leaders of the Party and the government  watched by the ARTEMENKO terrorist group I had formed." (Vol. I, pp. 150 reverse, 151.)
Speaking of the proposal of the Socialist Revolutionary SEMYONOV to organize a terrorist group, the accused BUKHARIN testified:
"I want to tell the truth and declare that this proposal was reported by me to a meeting of the centre, and we decided to charge SEMYONOV with the organization of terrorist groups (Vol. V, p. 106 reverse.)
The investigation has established that the vile assassination of S. M. KIROV committed by the Leningrad Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist centre on December 1, 1934, was also committed in pursuance of a decision of the "bloc of Rights and Trotskyites, members of which are being charged in the present case.

The investigation has established that one of the participants in this vile murder was the accused YAGODA, who testified as follows:
"That preparations for the assassination of S. M. KIROV were being made in accordance with a decision of the conspiratorial centre, I had previously learnt from YENUKIDZE.
YENUKIDZE told me not to hinder the organization of this terrorist act, and I agreed. With this purpose I summoned ZAPOROZHETZ from Leningrad and instructed him not to hinder the terrorist act that was being prepared against S. M. KIROV." (Vol. II, p. 209.)
This was confirmed by ZAPOROZHETZ and YENUKIDZE during the investigation.

The villainous terrorist activities of the Right and Trotskyite traitors and conspirators were not confined to the assassination of S. M. KIROV.

As the investigation of the present case has established, A. M.GORKY, V. R. MENZHINSKY and V. V. KUIBYSHEV fell victims to terrorist acts committed on the instructions of the Joint Centre of the "bloc of Rights and Trotskyites."

As to the reasons which induced the Right and Trotskyite conspirators to commit the unparalleled and monstrous murder of A. M. GORKY, the accused YAGODA testified:
"For a long time the Joint Centre of the Right and Trotskyite organization had endeavoured to influence GORKY and make him sever his close connections with STALIN. For this purpose KAMENEV, TOMSKY and a number of others were attached to GORKY. But no real results were achieved. GORKY remained faithful to STALIN and was an ardent supporter and advocate of his line. As the overthrow of the STALIN leadership and the seizure of power by the Rights and Trotskyites was being considered seriously, the centre could not ignore the exceptional influence of GORKY within the country and his prestige abroad. If GORKY remained alive he would raise his voice in protest against us. That we could not allow. Having become convinced that GORKY could not be severed from STALIN, the Joint Centre, therefore, had to decide to do away with GORKY."  (Vol. II, p. 200.)
The testimony of the accused YAGODA was fully corroborated by the accused RYKOV, who, when interrogated by the Prosecutor of the U.S.S.R. on January 10, 1938, testified:
"I know that TROTSKY, through his representatives in the contact centre, did his utmost to fan animosity against GORKY. This is naturally to be explained by the fact that TROTSKY was well aware that GORKY considered him a scoundrel and adventurer. On the other hand, the close friend ship of GORKY for STALIN was generally known, and the fact that he was an inflexible political supporter of STALIN aroused the animosity of our organization against him." (Vol. I, p. 166 reverse.)
To this the accused RYKOV added:
"In 1935 I had a conversation with YENUKIDZE, who bluntly told me that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite part of the bloc insisted on eliminating the political activities of GORKY and would stop at nothing to attain this end. This conversation made it clear to ms that the question of doing away with GORKY by terrorist methods might also arise." (Vol. I, pp. 166 reverse, 167.)
This was also corroborated by the accused BUKHARIN, who testified that in the beginning of 1935 TOMSKY had told him that:
". . . The Trotskyite part of the Joint Centre of the bloc had proposed to organize a hostile act against A. M. GORKY because he was a supporter of STALIN S policy. "(Vol. V, p. 119 reverse.)
In this connection the accused BUKHARIN explained that he does not preclude the possibility that it was the physical removal of GORKY that was then contemplated- That preparations for the physical removal of M. GORKY were contemplated is shown by the testimony of the accused BESSONOV, who was personally given a "line" to this effect directly by L. TROTSKY when he met the latter at the end of July 1934.

The accused BESSONOV testified that at this meeting L. TROTSKY, having declared that
". . .it would be unpardonable squeamishness if we did not at once proceed to the systematic physical removal of STALIN and of all his immediate colleagues, said: 
"M. GORKY is very intimate with STALIN. He plays an exceptional role in winning sympathy for the U.S.S.R. among the democratic opinion of the world and especially of Western Europe. GORKY is very popular as a close friend of STALIN S and as a vehicle of the general line of the Party. Our former supporters among the intelligentsia are leaving us very largely under the influence of GORKY. From this I draw the conclusion that GORKY must be put out of the way. Convey this instruction to PYATAKOV in the most categorical form: GORKY must be physically exterminated at all costs." (Vol. XI, pp. 74-75.)
It was in accordance with this instruction of enemy of the people L. TROTSKY that the "bloc of Rights and Trotskyites" adopted its monstrous decision to murder A. M. GORKY.

"The execution of this decision was entrusted to me," the accused YAGODA testified.

The accused YAGODA enlisted the accused in this case Dr. L. G. LEVIN, former family doctor of A. M. GORKY, Professor D. D. PLETNEV, P. P. KRYUCHKOV, A. M. GORKY S secretary, and P. P. BULANOV, YAGODA S own secretary, as the immediate perpetrators of this villainous plan.

The accused BULANOV, one of the organizers of this crime, testified:
"Professor PLETNEV, Dr. LEVIN and GORKY S secretary, KRYUCHKOV, took a direct part in the killing of A. M. GORKY. I, for instance, personally witnessed how YAGODA frequently summoned KRYUCHKOV and advised him to cause GORKY to catch a chill, to make him fall ill in one way or another. YAGODA stressed the point that the condition of GORKY S lungs was such that any illness caused  by a cold would increase the chances of his death. The rest would be done by PLETNEV and LEVIN, who had suitable instructions on this score."(Vol. XVI, p. 72.y
The accused PLETNEV, who took a direct part in the murder of A. M. GORKY and V. V. KUIBYSHEV, testified;
"YAGODA told me that I must help him to secure the physical removal of certain political leaders of the country. He bluntly proposed that I should take advantage of my position as physician to V. V. KUIBYSHEV and A. M. GORKY to hasten their death by wrong methods of treatment. I attempted to refuse, but in the end was forced to consent. 
After this, YAGODA informed me that my accomplice would be Dr. LEVIN, and, in the case of A. M. GORKY, the latter s secretary, P. P. KRYUCHKOV, as well. 
" Having accepted this gruesome commission from YAGODA, I, in conjunction with Dr. LEVIN, drew up a plan for the killing of A. M. GORKY and V. V. KUIBYSHEV. 
"I must confess that my anti-Soviet sentiments played a part in my consent to this crime. Until my arrest I concealed these anti-Soviet sentiments in every way, playing a game of duplicity and claiming to be a Soviet supporter." (Vol. XVIII, pp. 72-73.)
This was corroborated by the accused LEVIN, who testified:
"l confess that by deliberately adopting a wrong method of treatment and prescribing medicines unsuited to the given illness, I, together with my accomplices, and in agreement with YAGODA, was responsible for the untimely death of MAXIM GORKY and KUIBYSHEV" (Vol. XVII, p. 10.)
During the course of the investigation, the accused LEVIN and PLETNEV gave detailed testimony as to the way they actually arranged the killing of A. M. GORKY and V. V. KUIBYSHEV.

The investigation has established that the accused MAXIMOV,V. V. KUIBYSHEV S secretary, took an active part in bringing about the death of -V. V. KUIBYSHEV. MAXIMOV testified as follows:
"I consented to this crime as a member of the counter revolutionary organization of the Rights, which I had joined in 1928.

"YAGODA also knew that I belonged to the counter revolutionary organization and was present during one of my conversations with YENUKIDZE, when we drew up the plan for doing away with KUIBYSHEV."(Vol. XX, p. 45 reverse.)
V. R. MENZHINSKY, Chairman of the O.G.P.U., was also murdered by the accused Dr. LEVIN and Dr. KAZAKOV on the direct instructions of YAGODA.

Interrogated by the Prosecutor of the U.S.S.R, on February 43 1938, the accused KAZAKOV testified:
"YAGODA told me that MENZHINSKY liked and trusted me and that therefore Dr. LEVIN and I could succeed in doing away with MENZHINSKY. YAGODA gave me the
following instructions: I was to work out with Dr. LEVIN a method of treatment for V. R. MENZHINSKY that would hasten his death and end his life as soon as possible. . . " (Vol. XIX, p. 51 reverse.)
Continuing to relate his conversation with the accused YAGODA in which the latter spoke of the necessity of hastening the death of V. R. MENZHINSKY, the accused KAZAKOV testified:
"After this conversation with YAGODA, LEVIN and I drew up a method of treatment for V. R. MENZHINSKY which in reality totally undermined his strength and determined the rapid onset of death. Thus LEVIN and I actually murdered V. R. MENZHINSKY in this way.
"I gave Dr. LEVIN a mixture of lysates I had composed, which, in conjunction with alkaloids, led to the desired result, namely, the virtual murder of MENZHINSKY." (Vol. XIX, p. 51 reverse.)
This was fully corroborated by the accused L. G. LEVIN and P. P. BULANOV.

The accused L. G. LEVIN confirmed that, having received in structions from the accused YAGODA to hasten the death of V. R. MENZHINSKY, he, LEVIN, decided to enlist Dr. KAZAKOV in this crime.

The accused LEVIN testified:
"I said that this could be done best of all by KAZAKOV, as he used medicines which he himself prepared without control in his own laboratory, and what he injected he alone knew, 
"After preliminary and preparatory talks with KAZAKOV, I conveyed to him the instructions I had received from YAGODA. He hesitated very much at first, fearing that the crime might be discovered, but in the end he consented. I did not ask what he used, all the more since he usually kept his medicines secret, but I knew that he had wide opportunities in this respect. 
"V. R. MENZHINSKY S death occurred suddenly during sleep from paralysis of the heart, on the eve of the death of MAXIM PESHKOV (A. M. GORKY S son), if I am not mistaken. I had no doubt that this was KAZAKOV S work." (Vol. XVII, pp. 54*55.)
On the subject of the murder of V. R. MENZHINSKY, the accused BULANOV testified:
"YAGODA had long ago conceived the idea of physically removing- MENZHINSKY. He several times in my presence expressed dissatisfaction that MENZHINSKY continued to live and to occupy the post of head of the O.G.P.U. Then he said outright that MENZHINSKY must be put out of the way.
It was difficult to arrange the job through Dr. LEVIN, because MENZHINSKY did not like LEVIN and refused to be treated by him. I then suggested to YAGODA to "fix up" some other doctor for MENZHINSKY. This was done. With the assistance of Dr. LEVIN, MENZHINSKY was "fixed up" with Dr. KAZAKOV, who did the job, or, to put it plainly, hastened MENZHINSKY S death by deliberately employing a wrong method of treatment. (Vol. XVI, p. 75.)

Apart from the murder of A. M. GORKY and V. V. KUIBY SHEV, the accused LEVIN and KRYUCHKOV, on direct instructions of the accused YAGODA, in 1934 killed M. A. PESHKOV, the
son of A. M. GORKY, in a similar way.

In this connection, the accused LEVIN testified:
"I confess my guilt in the murder of Maxim and want to say here that I did it on the direct demand of YAGODA. I did not have the courage to refuse, and I became a murderer" (Vol. XVII, p. 138 reverse.)
The accused KRYUCHKOV, who took an active part in the crimes organized by YAGODA, testified: 
"In these crimes I was guided by the directions of certain members of the anti-Soviet organization of the Rights, in particular by the directions of YAGODA. It was from YAGODA that I received instructions forcibly to do away with Maxim PESHKOV, and then Alexei Maximovich GORKY.
"In addition to myself, YAGODA enlisted for the commission of these crimes the physicians LEVIN and VINOGRADOV and Professor PLETNEV." (Vol. XXI, p. 16.)
The accused YAGODA, confirming that M. A. PESHKOV was murdered on his instructions, testified:
"in May 1934, with the help of KRYUCHKOV, Max(M. A.PESHKOV) contracted double pneumonia, and the physicians LEVIN, VINOGRADOV and PLETNEV treated him in such a way as to bring about his death." (Vol. II, p. 193.)

After being removed from his post as People s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the U.S.S.R., the accused YAGOPA also took measures to murder Comrade N. I. YEZHOV, People s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the U.S.S.R.

In his testimony, the accused YAGODA explained the motives which induced him to hasten a terrorist act against N. I. YEZHOV as follows:
"My removal from my post in the People s Commissariat of Internal Affairs and the appointment of YEZHOV in my place meant the complete collapse of our conspiracy, because it would be impossible to prevent the routing of the "cadres of the anti-Soviet organization, YEZHOV would dig up every thing. YEZHOV had to be put out of the way. This was the only decision I could come to, and I began to make energetic preparations to put it into effect. . . "(Vol. II, pp. 141-42.)
 YAGODA attempted to carry out his plan through his accomplices, a prominent part being played by the accused BULANOV, The accused YAGODA and the accused BULANOV confessed that it was proposed to accomplish the murder of Comrade N. I.YEZHOV by means of a poison specially prepared for the purpose: 
"When YAGODA was removed from the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs" the accused BULANOV testified," he gave me and his personal agent, SAVOLAINEN, directinstructions to poison YEZHOV." (Vol. XVI, p. 27.)

Describing in detail the methods by which the accused YAGODA tried to murder Comrade N. I. YEZHOV, the accused BULANOV testified that he (BULANOV) himself prepared the mixture of drugs intended for the poisoning of Comrade YEZHOV.

Interrogated in the Office of the Prosecutor of the U.S.S.R.,the accused YAGODA fully admitted having committed this crime, testifying:
"Yes, I must admit that I made preparations for the perpetration of this crime. I made preparations for the murder of YEZHOV as a man who was dangerous to the counter-revolutionary plot and who might expose our counter-revolutionary organization." (Vol. II, p. 209.)
Thus the investigating authorities consider it established beyond all doubt that the leading members of the"bloc of Rights and Trotskyites," against whom criminal proceedings are being brought in this case, committed terrorist acts against S. M. KIROV V. R. MENZHINSKY, V. V. KUIBYSHEV, A. . GORKY and M. A. PESHKOV and made preparations for a number of other terrorist acts which they had no -time to carry out.

The murder of Soviet public men completed the circle of heinous State crimes by which this band of contemptible apostates of our country, provocateurs of the tsarist secret police and hirelings of foreign intelligence services, who were selling our land and liberty to foreign capitalists, strove to carry out a fascist plan for the overthrow of the Soviet system and the restoration of capitalism in our country.