April 5, 2018

Secret Soviet documents discussing collectivization and deportees in Northern USSR

Documents of the State Archives of socio-political movements and formations of the Arkhangelsk region on the reception and resettlement of the dekulakized in the Northern Territory. 1930

Published in the journal "Otechestvennye archives" No. 5 (2005)

The existence of a policy of total collectivization and the "elimination of the kulaks as a class" has turned our country into an arena of a large-scale experiment, the goal of which was the radical socioeconomic transformation of the village and the formation of a new social stratum-the collective farm peasantry. As a subject of this policy, party, Soviet bodies and departments, their leaders, mainly Stalin and his entourage, acted. The object is the broad sections of the peasantry, primarily the most prosperous and self-sufficient part of it, the so-called kulaks. The regions of the country differed significantly in the content and nature of the tasks being accomplished. Some of them were dominated by the conduct of complete collectivization and deportation of those who had been dekulared outside the places of their permanent residence, in others - reception, resettlement, household and household use and employment of expelled. The northern region was among the second group of regions[1] .

The liquidation of the kulaks as a class was conditioned not only by politics but also by the economy. The Central Committee of the CPSU (b) aimed to relocate large masses of the population to remote areas for the development of certain industries. In the North, the special settlers were to replenish the ranks of the forestry workers. The Soviet state needed money and money to carry out industrialization, and the forest was a profitable export commodity [2]

At the initial stage of the implementation of the policy of forced resettlement of the dispossessed, having shifted most of the work and responsibility to the regional authorities, the center placed them in very difficult conditions. The decision of many acute problems connected with reception and resettlement of sent peasants contingent, the regional authorities were compelled to undertake, without having thus necessary personnel, financial and material resources. The places of resettlement of "kulak" families in the majority were not ready for their reception. 

Any "reservations" in the decisions of the regional bodies, which cast doubt on the ability of the region to accept and resettle the "kulak" families established by the "top", were resolutely suppressed by the center, which demanded strict implementation of its directives [3] . In a letter of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (B.) Of May 24, 1930, the secretaries of the district committees, the Komi regional committee, city and rural committees of the party pointed out the need to "firmly grasp that this event, besides political significance for the party, is a direct economic benefit for the country and for the edge, for by this we are resolving the colonization question, we are getting rid of the acute shortage in the labor force and we are establishing new districts in the North " [4]

The unpreparedness of the regions to receive the contingent of evicted people, as well as the sharp aggravation of the situation in the countryside, caused by the beginning of the mass dekulakization of the peasants, forced the country's leadership to change the deadlines and reduce the control figures of the "kulak farms" that were subject to eviction. Thus, in February-April 1930, 45 thousand "kulak" families were to be moved to the Northern Territory, and not 70,000, as was planned earlier. 

In February-April 1930, 46,562 "kulak" families (230,065 people) arrived in the region [5] . The initial phase of the first stage of their resettlement was completed. At this stage, the priority tasks were the reception and accommodation of arrivals in places of temporary residence, including in former military barracks (see Doc # 5), as well as the construction of special settlements for them. With the opening of navigation, the special resettlement process entered a new phase. The tasks of resettlement, social and economic arrangement of "kulaks" in the places of their permanent residence came to the fore. 

The problem of forced relocation in the 1930s. was reflected in a number of documentary collections [6] . However, they mainly published sources (resolutions and records of higher Party, Soviet and economic bodies) deposited in the central archives of the country. Much less local archives are present here, the documents of which allow not only to comprehend the essence of the processes that took place, taking into account the interaction of the center with regional authorities, but also to understand the role and logic of actions in this situation of local authorities. 

The documents of the Northern Regional Committee of the VKP (b) (F. 290) of the State Archives of Social and Political Movements and Formations of the Arkhangelsk Region (GAOAPDF AO), submitted to the reader, aim to fill this gap to some extent. 

In documents located in chronological order, the characteristic features of the text and style are preserved. 

Introductory article, preparation of the text for publication and comments by N.V. DISADVED. 

[1] The northern edge was formed on January 14, 1929 on the basis of the Arkhangelsk, Vologda, North Dvin provinces and Komi autonomous region, with the center in Arkhangelsk. Arkhangelsk (center - Arkhangelsk), Vologda (Vologda), Nyandomomsky (Nyandoma), Severo-Dvinsky (Veliky Ustyug) and Nenets (Samoyodsky) and Komi autonomous regions were in its composition. On December 5, 1936, it was reorganized into the Northern Region (an autonomous oblast was reorganized into the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). September 23, 1937. The northern region is divided into Arkhangelsk and Vologda. 

[2] See more details: Polyan P.М. Not at will ...: History and geography of forced migrations in the USSR. M., 2001. 

[3] The Northern Regional Committee of the CPSU (B.), Aware of the complexity and difficulty of performing the tasks before it, insured itself by making certain "reservations" in the decisions of the bureau. Thus, in the resolution of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (B.) Of January 31, 1930, the quantitative dependence of the contingent of special settlers on the construction of barracks (30,000 families instead of 70,000) (document No. 3) was noted on the question of building barracks as a separate item. Higher authorities obliged the party leadership of Sevkra to give explanations on this matter, and the secretary of Sevkraikom SA. Berghavinov had to talk to the authorities (doc # 10). 

[4] The GAOAPF AO. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 379. L. 100. 

[5] Ibid. 

[6] See: Documents show: From the history of the village on the eve and in the course of collectivization. 1927-1932 M., 1989; Dugin A.N. Unknown Gulag: Documents and Facts. M., 1999; The tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dekulakization: Documents and materials: In 5 tons. 1927-1939. M., 2000; The Soviet village through the eyes of the Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. 1918-1939: Documents and materials: In 4 vol. M., 2003; History of the Stalin Gulag. The end of the 1920s - the first half of the 1950s: Sobr. Doc .: In 7 tons. T. 5. Special resettlers in the USSR. M., 2004; and etc. 

No. 1 
From the minutes No. 34 of the special closed meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b)

January 27, 1930

Sovershenno secret

1. On the admission and resettlement of the deceased families inside the region

1. To propose the commission of the regional committee (Austrin [1] , Lyutin, Yakovlev) to specify the plan for the district settlement of the kulak families expelled to the region, taking as a basis the draft plenipotentiary representation of the OGPU and the considerations set forth in the telegram addressed to the Central Committee on this question.

2. To supplement the commission, including in its composition Comrade. Komissarov [2] and Maksimov.

3. Commission commissions immediately:

a) in accordance with the plan for district settlement to determine the settlement points and take into account all available premises at these points for the temporary accommodation of families of resettled kulaks, taking into account the need to use free former monastic premises. Urgently ask about this district, intended for settlement;

b) to determine the places of construction of temporary barracks for housing the families of the displaced kulaks;

c) determine the required number of building materials for the construction of barracks, as well as establish the number of necessary labor for their construction and the amount of funds necessary to cover the costs of these activities;

d) considering as a rule the mandatory use of labor to build barracks of adult able-bodied male population from resettled, to find out on the basis of the OGPU the possibility of sending for technical supervision the work of the necessary number of specialists from military demining units;

e) develop a specific plan for the use of adult able-bodied population from the resettlement to be sent to the permanent settlement areas in order to prepare for their subsequent resettlement in these places of their families, as well as the use in some areas of labor for logging and rafting.

Deputy. Secretary of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b) 

Maksimov 

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 378. L. 4-5. Script. 


No. 2 
Minutes No. 2 of the meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b) [3]
January 29, 1930

Present: members of the commission: vol. Maksimov, Komissarov, Lyutin.

By invitation: тт. Yakovlev (Severoles), Grigoriev (trade), Berdichevsky (krastorg), Lotsmanov (Severtorg), Sinelnikov (Committee of the North), Tsvetaev (krazdrav), Klyukovsky (pastadmotdel), Roslyakov (Severoles), Mizinov (Archokrug), Silin (Sevpetrest) , Smyslov (Union of Builders), Vershinin, Bakhutov, Osipchik and Walter (OGPU).

Comrade Comrade. Maksimov.

Agenda:

On the resettlement of kulak families in the province.

(Reports of [meetings] according to the instructions given at the meeting of the commission of January 27 this year).


Listened: About the resettlement of kulak families in the Arkhangelsk District.

Speaker comrade. Klyukovsky.

In the mountains. Arkhangelsk, we inspected a number of premises that could be used, with little cost for their maintenance, to accommodate families of exiles. These rooms are located: No. 25 on Kuznechikha, with a capacity of 300 people; hangars behind barracks of the 29th regiment - 6000 people; barracks of Voenveda (former hospital) - 5000 people; landing pavers - 7 pcs., with a total capacity of 4,500 people; barracks on the Bull - 2000 people, Mills of the Vodossvet - 500 people. In general, it will be possible to resettle about 18,000 people in the city. In the Primorsky and Arkhangelsk regions it will be possible to resettle about 50,000 people among the population.

In the debate are: vol. Lyutin, Yakovlev, Mizinov, Komissarov, Maksimov.

Comrade. Mizinov objects to resettlement in the districts of the Arkhangelsk District of 50,000 people. families of exiles on the grounds that the Primorsky district is planned for complete collectivization. In the areas of the Archokrug it will be possible to accept no more than 25 000 people.

Resolved : a) Scheduled krayadmotdelom premises in the mountains. Arkhangelsk booked for the resettlement of the families of the exiled kulaks.

b. Instruct the construction company to begin repairing these premises immediately. To supervise the production of works on the equipment of these premises and their release to instruct Comrade Klyukovsky.

c) Of the number of reserved rooms, one is allocated for sanitation and 2 barracks for baths.

d) Instruct the Archdiocese of the VKP (b) to promptly give their views on the resettlement of exiles in the districts (with the exception of Mezensky and Onega) in the number of 40,000 people. Information on places of settlement, as well as on the number of people resettled, should be submitted by January 31 this year.

Listened: About the resettlement of exiles in the districts of the Nyandom district.

t. Osipchik: The places of resettlement of exiles in the Nyandom district are not yet scheduled, this work ends.

Decided: Assign Comrade Osipchik to finish urgently the work to determine the places of settlement in the Nyandom district. Information on the places of settlement and the number of people resettled should be submitted by January 31 this year.

Listened: About use of able-bodied population from among exiles on logging and rafting. Speaker Comrade Roslyakov.

Until March 1, for logging, we can take about 6000 people. In the future, this figure can be brought to the work of exiles up to 30 000 people.

In the debate are: vol. Yakovlev, Lutin, Maksimov.

Resolved: 1) Comrade Roslyakov's report on the use of exiles at work in the amount of 6,000 people. before March 1 take note.

2) Consider it possible to increase the use by March 1 on logging and rafting an additional 6,000 people. Use is linked with the village construction plan in the forestry enterprises and preparation for logging [19] 30/31.

3) Offer tt. Osipchik, Lutin and Roslyakov, the general plan for settling along the edge is to be submitted no later than February 2 this year.

Listened: About the construction of barracks. The speaker is Comrade Silin.

For 200 thousand people. it will be necessary to build about 800 barracks. The total amount of construction costs will be 7,200,000 rubles, plus the construction of bakeries and bathhouses will require an additional 1,500,000 rubles. In total, it will take about 9 million rubles for this purpose.

The debates were made by: Roslyakov, Lutin, Berdichevsky, Komissarov, Maksimov, Bakhutov.

Comrade. Roslyakov proposes to build a hut-type barracks. For this purpose, much less money will be required.

Decided: 1) Recognize the plan of wide barracks construction is not real. 2) Charge the mt. Berdichevsky and Roslyakov to identify the real possibility of building barracks hut type in Kotlas, Vologda, Konosha with a capacity of 10,000 people. and in Arkhangelsk for 15 000 people, at the rate of 200 people. in the barracks.

Listened: About the supply of incoming exiles with food and boiling water.

Decided: Commit Comrade Berdichevsky to urgently work out the question of the procedure for supplying exiles with food and boiling water.

Listened: About the further sending to the edge of the criminal-exile element.

They decided: To propose that Comrade Osipchik urgently inform Moscow about the impossibility of accepting the criminal exile and asking the Center to change the route of the direction of 6,000 people. exiles. Now, to initiate a petition before the Center for the temporary cessation of resettlement in the province of the criminal exile before the resettlement of 70,000 kulak families.

Listened: On the survey of Onega and Mezensky districts to identify the real possibilities of resettlement.

Have decided: To commission. Osipchik and Klyukovsky not later than January 31 this year. to send to survey areas of Onega and Mezen and to identify the real possibilities of resettlement there the appropriate number of exiles for permanent residence.

Chairperson 

Maksimov 

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. P. 378. L. 30-32. Script. 


№ 3 
From the Minutes No. 36 of the special closed meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b)

January 31, 1930

Sovershenno secret

1. The plan for the resettlement of the kulaks in the Northern Territory

1. The total number of 70,000 families or 350,000 souls to resettle in the following order: Arkhangelsk District - 30,000 families, Vologda - 10,000 families, Northeast - 9,500 families, Nyandomom - 8,500 families, Komi - 12,000 families.

2. As soon as the kulak farms come to the region, the able-bodied masculine part is immediately sent by parties to 500-1000 people. under escort in the areas of permanent settlement, where it is used as a labor force in logging, rafting and on the construction of settlements in the places of residence of those evicted.

3. Prior to the opening of the navigation, all disabled members of the evicted family (women, children) are accommodated in specially adapted premises, such as monasteries, churches, barracks, warehouses, etc.

a) in the area of ​​Arkhangelsk - 23 thousand people.

b) - "- Vologda - 23 thousand people.

c) - "- Nyandoma - 2 thousand people.

d) - "- Kotlas - 5 thousand people.

e) - "- Great Ustyug - 15 thousand people.

4. To accommodate the remaining families before navigation, it is now necessary to force the construction of new hut-type barracks in the amount of 1,200 with the calculation of 200,000 people in them. or 150-160 people. on the barrack, namely:

a) in the area of ​​Vologda - 200 barracks

b) - "- Nyandoma - 150 barracks

c) - "- Arkhangelsk - 550 barracks

d) - "- Kotlas - 300 barracks

5. For every 10 huts built 1 bakery, 1 distribution warehouse and for every 20 barracks - 1 barracks in case of an epidemic. The construction is done without any special expenses for construction materials.

6. The deployment of barracks should begin no later than February 2 with the expectation of completing the construction by April 1. The total amount of costs for the construction of barracks to determine no more than 5 million rubles.

7. Severols, Komiles and Kraisovnarkhoz immediately release the right amount of timber of the worst quality from the stock of the domestic market. Before the receipt of central funds, one million rubles from the local budget should be released in mutual benefit.

8. Supply rates are as follows per person: bread 200-300 grams per day and per month 3 kilograms of potatoes, 500 grams of cereals and 300 grams of cabbage. For minimum illumination of the barracks, 10 cisterns of kerosene will be required.

9. Worked on the construction of new settlements in the places of permanent settlement, as well as working on logging, are supplied according to the norms of administratively expelled. In the area of ​​barracks open stalls for the sale of goods at higher prices. Krytortgotdel give the necessary application for goods and building materials to the Narkomtorg, taking into account some need to provide baby food (condensed milk, sugar, etc.).

10. The Krai Administration in a week's time should develop settlement rules and types of settlements, providing for each village of 100 yards the need to build by the forces of the evicted feldpunkta, the school and the building for the commandant. The resettlement apparatus of the krayzu must rebuild its work in the direction of resettlement of the peasant kulak farms.

11. If the barracks are not built in such numbers, then the edge before navigation will be able to receive only up to 30,000 families, and the remaining families should remain in place until the spring or in other warm places, and able-bodied members of these families can be sent to us.

12. It is advisable that the first echelons come to us from the Central Chernobyl Area, as they can be better used in the construction of barracks.

13. Designed [in] Moscow horses must be delivered, otherwise there will be no way to send the evicted and their supplies to remote places where there are no markets and villages. Horses on the site will also be used to transport timber to the construction of villages.

14. The OGPU must ensure a minimum of doctors, in order to prevent epidemic in the places of congestion, and the drugs should be provided with medicines.

15. In view of the lack of the necessary number of construction personnel in the province, and the existing ones are engaged in industrial construction, we ask you to hastily send a company of sappers to guide barracks construction.

Deputy. Secretary of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b) 

Maksimov 

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 378. L. 11-12. Script. 


No. 4 
Plan for the accommodation of kulak families, developed by the authorized office of the OGPU of the Northern Territory

February 3, 1930

Comrade. To Bergavinov [4]

Plan for the placement of kulak farms arriving for residence in the Northern Territory (placement prior to the opening of navigation)

a) in the adapted premises:

1) in Vologda - 40 thousand people.

2) in Arkhangelsk - 24 000 people.

3) in Kotlas and Solvychegodsk - 10 000 people.

Total: 74,000 people.

b) in newly built barracks:

in Vologda in 240 barracks - 36 000

in Konosha in 70 - "- - 10 000

in Nyandoma in the 100 - "- - 16 000

in Lepsha at 50 - "- - 8,000

in the Tundra-Obozerskaya in 530 - "- - 80,000

in Kotlas in 240 - "- - 36 000

in Oparino in 130 - "- - 20 000 (1)

Total: 280,000

Deputy. P [olmonochnogo] of the [representative] of the OGPU for Sevkra 

Shireon 


GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 378. L. 29. The original. 


No. 5 The cryptogram of the commander of the troops of the Leningrad Military District M.N. Tukhachevsky to the secretary of the Sevkraikom VKP (b) S.A. To Bergavinov

February 9, 1930

To Bergavinov

[At] the occupation of empty barracks before navigation, subject to subsequent repairs and transfer of the fireworks to the heated church, at the option of the regiment, agree.
Tukhachevsky

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 378. L. 34. Certified copy. 


No. 6 The cryptogram of Sevkraykom's secretary of the CPSU (b) S.A. Bergavinova I.V. To Stalin and V.M. Molotov

February 17, 1930

Stalin, Molotov

Your 10 cc is accepted [for] unswerving execution and we inform you: all our decisions [and] practical training proceeded [from] calculating the intake to the spring of 70,000 farms for which we have a detailed operational plan. The decision of the regional committee of January 31 is also based on the calculation of 70,000 households, only paragraph 11 speaks of 30,000 for the case of unprepared barracks. This point is based on our serious anxiety because the central bodies are remarkably complacent and relate [to] the issue of supplying materials and resources for the construction of barracks. In order not to disrupt the business, we temporarily allocated money from the local budget, removed building materials from the capital construction of factories, and began on February 5 [to] build the simplest barracks and adapt other premises. However, to this day the People's Commissariats do not understand the seriousness of this case, because the materials have not yet been sent, but money was transferred only yesterday - one million, i.е. the amount of money [from] the local budget. Such a situation can disrupt our export construction or put us in a position of unpreparedness to accept the evicted. We ask you to give a categorical directive to SNK, VSNKh, NKTorgu, OGPU [about] promptly providing us with the necessary assistance and compensation for the materials and means we have released. NCTorg does nothing [in] the sense of supply, and local resources are limited to a minimum. At least unambiguously, the OGPU encryption dated February 5 [with] indicating reception [in] the edge of only 45,000 farms. We, considering that it was given with your consent, and the preparation of the reception was switched from 70 to 45 thousand households. We ask [to give] instructions to the OGPU [and] copies to us, [of] which numbers to proceed. To date, fully ready to take 12 thousand farms, construction of barracks [and] all work is timed [for] the schedule of the OGPU of the arrival of echelons of evicted persons. This issue is given exceptional importance, I personally had to get rid of [all] questions and deal only with logging, industrial plan, export and the kulaks.

Bergavinov

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 387. L. 8. Copy. 


No. 7 The cryptogram of Sevkraykom's secretary of the CPSU (b) S.A. Bergavinov V.M. Molotov

February 27, 1930

Moscow Central Committee of the CPSU (B.), Molotov

The Central Committee reports very clearly that on February 27, eight echelons of kulak families have arrived, the unloading and placement passes smoothly without excesses, the able-bodied are eager for work, sent to forest work are willing to work. They are joyfully surprised that they will be sent to settle in the spring for settlements, because the trains arrive [with] the mood that they will be shot. [In] the townsfolk, partly workers, express regret "unhappy." The majority of workers' factories are cheerful, they decided to conduct an explanation of this issue in the shops. It is noteworthy that in all echelons there is a huge number of infants, infirm old people, disabled people, including the Civil War. For example, in the echelon of the Atkar District of 1,742 people, men - 400, women - 645, children - 697. Of this number of elderly over 70 years - 199, and there are 211 able-bodied men in the entire echelon. There are many families, of which frail old men have arrived, and able-bodied family members are left in place, or fathers with children have arrived, and mothers have remained in place. A lot of families have been deported from the city of Petrovsk, consisting only of a husband and a wife-the elderly for 60-70-80 years, there are not a few widows with three or five young children. There are a lot of arriving families without any food and belongings, as they were told that they go for two days on a commission, and they did not order anything with them, and other families stated that they should take food only for three days. A very large number of families arrived without money, which they did not allow to take with them a penny, and the available ones were taken without receipts. This is along the echelon of 501 from the Middle Volga. Not a few cases, when the property of the evicted person arrived, and the family stayed in place, and vice versa.

Until now, Narkomtorg has not abandoned any products, the People's Commissariat for Health did not send medications, and the OGPU did not send, in spite of the promise, exiled doctors. Money for barracks, except one million to cover the released from the regional budget, SNK and the OGPU were not expelled. We ask the Central Committee to give a directive on this issue.

Bergavinov

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 387. L. 9. Copy. 


No. 8 
From protocol No. 49 of the meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b) (2)

March 23-24, 1930

Strictly Secretly

4. The norms of economic armament and production support of kulak families sent to the region

1. Take into consideration the approximate calculations of the PP of the OGPU on the norms of economic armament of resettled kulak families:

a) Each family must have: horses - 0.5, cows - 0.4, harnesses, sledges and carts for 0.5 sets, plows - 0.25, harrows - 0.1, braids - 2, sickles - 2, hoes - 2, spurs - 1, axes - 2, saws transverse - 1, saws longitudinal - 0.1 and different carpenter-joinery and forging tools on 15 rivers. on the family.

b) For families settled at the points of commercial fishing, St. John's wort and hunting, it is necessary to consider the existence of economic weapons up to 200 rubles. on the family.

2. Take note of the approximate calculations of PP OGPU on the cost of building materials (with transportation) per family, the cost of food and the cost of sending the kulak family to the place of settlement.

3. To consider it necessary to obtain second-hand equipment and economic equipment from the available surpluses in the collective farms of those regions from which the deceased families arrived.

4. PP OGPU refine the calculations, determine what portion of households [Affiliations] weapons required in the current year, and to set the indicative amount that can be mobilized in the kulak families.

5. Krayplanu prepare a report on the resettlement of families in the government and in the individual People's Commissariat for accessories.

p. 5. rations administrative exiles and fists, engaged in physical labor at the timber mill and Lespromkhozes (ie. Berdichevsky)

Presented kraytorgotdelom rations for administrative exiles and fists, engaged in physical labor at the timber mill in Lespromkhozes, namely bread - 600 g, cereals - 1000 g potatoes - 3000 g, meat - 75 grams of fish - 75 g sugar - 500 g, tea - 50 g and vegetation [nogo] The oil - 200 g were taken.

Deputy. Secretary of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b) 

Ioffe 
GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 378. L. 90. The original. 


No. 9 
Resolution on the Report on the Placement and Arrangement of Kulak Migrants in the Northern Territory

April 1, 1930 (3)

Strictly secret. Special folder

1. In the development of the previous decisions, the regional committee, considering the special composition of the migrants sent to the krai (kulak farms), and the impossibility, therefore, of forming permanent workers for the timber industry and logging, Sevkrayk VKP (b) considers that the basis for resettlement should be the agricultural colonization of mostly uninhabited and sparsely populated areas and, in particular, areas cleared of the forest, but with the indispensable condition of soil fertility for agriculture, is laid.

2. Such resettlement sets the task of agricultural and commercial development of new and underdeveloped regions and should have in the southern part of the region cattle-breeding and flax-growing slopes; in the northern part - livestock and gardening; in the coastal strip and lacustrine areas - ensuring the work of iodine fisheries, the development of fish, mammal and fur industries.

3. Efficient members of the family of resettled kulaks can be used for logging and rafting, for forest management and wood chemistry, for road works, etc., which should give the settlers additional earnings and facilitate agricultural development of the land.

4. In the course of resettlement, the condition of transport routes must be taken into account, since in the conditions of the edge by water transport, the possibility of transferring and elementary maintenance of kulak settlers by food, building materials, etc.,

5. To manage the resettlement work and the economic organization of resettled kulak families under the CEC (4) to organize a regional commission consisting of com. Komissarov, Shyiron and Lyutin. Colonization forces, the means of territorial and district land bodies should be thrown at this resettlement of kulak families.

6. For practical and operational work on resettlement (survey of land funds, management of hydrotechnical and road works, raskorchevkoj, etc.) consider it necessary to immediately organize a small and flexible regional special resettlement management, as the body of the NKZem. To ask the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) to give an urgent instruction to the NKVD on this question and on the staffing of this apparatus by the relevant specialists (surveyors, reclamation engineers, etc.).

7. Taking into account the general extreme shortage in the province of land managers and the need to conduct a survey and establish a colonization fund for kulak families (more than 300 people) in the shortest possible time, insist the Narkomzem of immediately sending the necessary number of land surveyors to the region to 150 people, without which forces are difficult to manage.

8. Settlement of settlers shall be carried out on the basis of a decision of the Regional Committee Bureau on January 31 [19] 30 and February 5 [19] 30 (Protocols) No. 36 (5) and 38) in special settlements not exceeding 120 families per each village. Premises for settlers (one for 8 families) due to climate severity, marshy soil, etc. must be log-like, primitive, standard-barrack type, taking into account the need for minimum consumption of imported construction materials.

9. Considering that the delivery to the place of permanent residence of settlers, as well as the most necessary equipment, food and construction materials, will require an additional tonnage for the whole navigational period in the amount of 17 commodity-passenger steamships, an average capacity of 250 indicator forces, 20 tugboats with 170 indica- tors ] forces, 26 covered barges with a carrying capacity of 300 tons each, up to 20 vessels of coastal navigation, and also considering that the existing tonnage far does not provide even the forthcoming alloy of export timber and transportation on the edge, to ask the Central Committee of the party to give urgent instructions NKPuti provide transportation kulak settlers additional tonnage, moving it from other areas.

10. For the economic arming of families of immigrants engaged in agriculture, fisheries, etc., it is necessary to provide in the form of loans the appropriate minimum inventory in the amounts accepted by the regional committee bureau from March 23-24, 1930. (6) The CEC factions to work on the issue about the required amount of equipment, seeds and gear for immigrants, ensuring their production use.

11. Considering that a significant number of settlers already this year should be used by forestry organizations as a labor force for preparatory work on harvesting next year, ask the Central Committee to instruct the SRT or VSNKh to ensure timely financing of logging organizations for this purpose, since already the economic organizations of the region (Severles et al.) Refuse to participate in such expenses due to a lack of funds.

12. In view of the fact that almost all the able-bodied part of the migrants will be employed in the work for the preparation of the colonization fund and housing construction in the next six months, which makes them unable to receive any earnings, it is necessary to recognize the minimum food that they need to produce as a state loan.

13. For each village, the commandant and one policeman should be appointed by the OGPU organs, which are kept at the expense of the state budget.

14. Fractions of the executive committee in three days to provide the government with a relevant memorandum on the necessary measures to ensure the immediate resettlement of kulak settlers and the necessary building materials (nails, glass, iron), as well as monetary and food appropriations for this purpose.

15. To approve the plan for the placement of kulak families by districts in the number of: Arkhangelsk District - 23,6 thousand families, Vologda District - 15 thousand families, Nyandom District - 9 thousand families, Sevo [e] -Dwin District - 12 thousand families , The Komi region - 15 thousand families, and to suggest factions of the krai executive committee within five days on the basis of this resolution to finally clarify the quantitative their placement.

16. In view of the extremely great political and economic importance for the region and the country in resolving this task, it imperatively demands from all Party organizations of the region, the Soviet and economic bodies of serious attitude, maximum organization, and a clear and clear work in this important matter. He absolutely declares that any bureaucratic formal hardware approach in resolving this task will be severely punished.

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 379. L. 2-4. Copy. 


№ 10 
From the telegram Ioffe SA. Berghavinov in Moscow on the need to urgently resolve the issue of the supply of food for special settlers

May 4, 1930

Urgently

Moscow, pre-Mayor Berghavinov

<...> It is necessary to clarify the issue of feeding the migrants. [In] connection [with] the forthcoming opening of navigation, business executives and Austrin raise the question of equating workers' food [as] laborers to the norms of nutrition of trade union members. Meanwhile, the Soyuzhleb all cuts off the release of bread, which is not enough even for minimum supplies, the settler has 161 grams instead of 300. There are still no allocations for the construction of carbases and gear for immigrants, although everyone knows the directive telegram. <...>

Ioffe

GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 388. L. 68. Copy. 


No. 11 
From Minutes No. 65 of the Extraordinary Closed Meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b)

May 20, 1930

Secretly

paragraph 1. About resettlement and transportation of immigrants

1. Recognize that the situation with the preparatory work for resettlement for permanent residence of settlers, the construction of settlements, the provision of tonnage, food and construction materials is badly managed as a result of the formal bureaucratic attitude of a number of business organizations.

Consider that all work on resettlement should end in the province no later than September 1, 1930.

2. Obliging the head of the resettlement administration of the Khabarovsk Territory, immediately take all the exhaustive measures to strengthen this work, and, first and foremost, start work on the construction of settlements. The results will be reported to the Bureau of the Regional Committee by June 1.

3. To invite the district committees to take an active part in this matter, by involving district committees and district executive committees.

4. To warn all heads of organizations and enterprises that come into contact with resettlement and the use of immigrants, that for a formal attitude and inaction to this most important case, the perpetrators will be held accountable, up to expulsion from the party.

5. To instruct Comrade Berghavinov to write a draft of a closed letter from the regional committee to the district committees and the village committees on this question and to submit it to the bureau no later than May 23 this year. [5]

6. To mark the inadmissible fact of incorrect counting and reporting to the NKVS by the SevGosrecht and of the SovtorgFlota without the authorization of the regional executive committee and the regional committee on tonnage, transportation of settlers and their cargoes. To oblige. Bogachev, Rachkov and the head of the resettlement center, comrade Kharitonov, to make correct calculations based on the decisions of the Central Committee and the regional committee on the supply of supplies and to report to the regional executive committee and the NKVC.

7. To propose the part-partners of the State Shiprepair and the Sotvorgflot to begin the transportation of the settlers in a three-day period.

The Secretary of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b) 

Bergavinov 
GAOFDF JSC. F. 290. Op. 1. D. 379. L. 90-91. Script.


[1] RI Austrin - plenipotentiary representative of the OGPU for the Northern Territory.

[2] SI Komissarov - Chairman of the Northern Regional Executive Committee.

[3] The first meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (B.), Formed by the resolution of the party bureau on January 27, 1930 (seedocument No. 1), took place on the same day. Questions were considered about the temporary placement of "kulak" families and the use of their able-bodied part in heavy work. Instructions were given to the relevant bodies and managers (Minutes No. 1) (GAOFDF SA, F. 290. Op. 1. D. 378. L. 18-20).

[4] S.A. Bergavinov - from January 1929 to March 1931, the Secretary of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b). Then he worked in the Union of Industry of the Supreme Economic Council, first secretary of the Far Eastern Territorial Party Committee, deputy head of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route. In 1937, repressed, in 1956, rehabilitated (Pomorskaya Encyclopedia: In 5 vols T. 1. History of the Arkhangelsk North., Arkhangelsk, 2001. p. 74).

[5] A typographical copy of the letter was sent to the secretaries of the Komi Regional Committee, district, city and village committees of the party on May 24, 1930 (GAOFDF SA, F. 290. Op. 1. D. 379. L. 100).

(1) A total of 206 thousand people were planned to be accommodated in the constructed barracks.

(2) From the Appendix "Special Ordinances" to Protocol No. 49 of the meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (B. ) Of March 23-24, 1930, to paragraph 4, 5.

(3) The date of approval at a closed meeting of the Sevkraim Committee of the CPSU (b).

(4) The Regional Executive Committee.