Header Ads

Header ADS

Stalin, Soviets and İsraeli Question - then and now - 1

Download PDF - Chronologically organized

NOTE OF MINISTER OF FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE USSR V.M. MOLOTOV TO THE GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE CC VKP (b), CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE USSR I.V. STALIN

October 26, 1947

Secret

In a telegram dated October 27, Vyshinsky reported that the first

The Subcommittee of the Palestinian Committee * has begun to draw up a plan for a transitional Palestine structure on the basis of the unanimously adopted recommendations and the report of the majority of the Special Committee.

Vyshinsky makes the following suggestions:

1. Cancellation of the mandate from January 1, 1948.

2. The withdrawal of British troops no later than 3-4 months from the date of the cancellation of the mandate.

3. Establishment of a transitional period of no more than one year from the date of cancellation of the mandate.

4. The administration of Palestine during the transitional period is entrusted to the UN, represented by the Security Council, through a special commission made up of representatives of the member states.

The Security Council; The seat of the commission is Palestine.

5. A special commission is carrying out measures to establish the boundaries of the Jewish and Arab states in accordance with the decision of the General Assembly on the partition of Palestine.

6. The special commission, after consulting the democratic parties and public organizations of the Jewish and Arab states, elects in each of the states a temporary government council, whose activities are carried out under the general guidance of the special commission.

7. Provisional government council of each of the states no later than 6 months from the date of its formation, it conducts elections to the constituent assembly on a democratic basis.

Election regulations are drafted by government councils and approved by a special commission of the Security Council.

8. The constituent assembly of each of the states develops a democratic constitution and elects a government.

9. Provisional government councils, after their formation begin, under the supervision of a special commission, to create administrative bodies - central and local.

10. These government councils as soon as possible must form an armed militia from citizens of their state in a number sufficient to maintain internal order and prevent border clashes. This armed militia will be operatively under the command of its national commanding staff, but general military-political control over its activities will be carried out by a special commission.

Vyshinsky points out that the above provisions basically coincide with the opinion of the representatives of the Jewish Agency.

I propose to agree with Vyshinsky's proposals.

V. Molotov

On the paper document: “Comrade. Poskrebyshev reported by HF *, that Comrade Stalin agrees. 28.X. Podcerob ".

AVP RF, f. 06, op. 9, p. 22, d. 267, l. 72-73.

* High frequency ad hoc government communications.

 

NOTE OF THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE USSR V.M. MOLOTOV TO THE GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE CC VKP (b), CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE USSR I.V. STALIN

April 9, 1948

Secret

I present for approval the draft directive of Comrade Gromyko to session of the General Assembly.

V. Molotov

ATTACHMENT

Draft directives of the USSR delegation to the second special session of the UN General Assembly on the question of Palestine

The Soviet delegation should be guided by the following in its work at the special session of the General Assembly:

1. To seek election to the Credentials Committee of one representative from the Soviet delegations or from Poland or Czechoslovakia.

2. Do not nominate candidates for the post of Chairman of the Assembly.

The question of support for the nominated candidate will be decided by the delegation on the spot, depending on the situation.

3. To seek election to the General Committee, except for the USSR, two more representatives from Eastern European countries, of which, depending on the situation: two vice-presidents of the Assembly and one chairman of the committee, or two chairmen of committees and one vice-chairman of the Assembly.

4. To defend the General Assembly resolution of 11/29/1947 on the partition of Palestine, guided by the directives given to the Soviet delegations at the special and second sessions of the General Assembly.

Indicate that during the period since the adoption of the said resolution, the United Kingdom in every possible way obstructed its implementation and, in particular, opposed the visit of the Palestinian Commission to Palestine, which was therefore unable to start on-site preparatory work for the section.

Indicate also that the Security Council, for its part, has not exhausted the means at its disposal to implement this resolution.

5. Criticize the American guardianship of Palestine, noting the following:

a) The new US proposal on the question of Palestine, aimed at overturning a General Assembly decision adopted by a two-thirds majority, not only fails to bring peace to Palestine, but leads to an exacerbation of the struggle between Jews and Arabs, and at the same time creates a threat to peace and increased anxiety in the Middle East. At the same time, the General Assembly, which took its decision with the active participation of the United States after a detailed discussion of the question of Palestine, is put in a false position as an object of political maneuvers by the ruling circles of the United States, trying to impose on the General Assembly a new solution to the question of Palestine, regardless of the legitimate national interests of the peoples Palestine.

6) US proposal to establish guardianship over Palestine does not correspond to the current cultural and political level of development of the Jewish and Arab population, due to which it meets with a negative attitude and resistance from both Jews and Arabs. Establishing guardianship over Palestine is not a step forward from the mandate system to the national self-determination of the peoples of Palestine, but leaves Palestine in the position of a semi-colony.

c) As for that part of the American proposals, which speaks about the foundations of the organization of power in Palestine, it contradicts the principle of self-government and is imbued with distrust of the ability of the local population to organize the administration of Palestine on a democratic basis on their own.

6. Declare that due to the above considerations the Soviet delegations will vote against the American proposal.

7. Insist on the confirmation of the November 29 resolution and on the adoption by the UN members of effective measures to implement it.

AVP RF, f. 06, op. 10, p. 15, d. 160, l. 4-7.

Publ .: Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn.- 1998.- No. 10.- S. 88-89.

 

SUMMARY OF THE MIDDLE EAST DEPARTMENT OF THE USSR "SITUATION IN PALESTINE AFTER UN DECISION ON DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY"

April 13, 1948

On November 29, 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations, after more than six months of studying the Palestinian problem, adopted a democratic decision to create two independent states in Palestine - an Arab and a Jewish. This decision, reflecting the aspirations of the Jewish and Arab peoples to build their lives within the framework of nation states, received a positive assessment in democratic circles around the world.

Jews

The news of the creation of the Jewish state caused on November 30, jubilant Jews throughout Palestine, demonstrators thanked the United Nations, the Soviet Union, and other countries for supporting the partition of Palestine. Resistance of the Arabs to the UN decision and the widespread clashes between Arabs and Jews made it necessary for the Jews to prepare for the defense of the future Jewish state. The Jewish Agency and the Jewish National Council * announced on December 9 the mobilization of the first conscription group (17-25 years old) for security service and use in the Jewish semi-legal military organization Kharan . Ben-Gurion, chairman of the Jewish Agency, declared on January 1, 1948, that the Jews “defended not only themselves and not only the UN regulations, but also the borders of the Jewish state. We have the right to demand that the UN provide us with moral and material support ... These are the birth pangs of the Jewish state, and we will accept them with faith and selfless devotion. "

All the growing resistance of the Arabs to partition dictated the urgency of creating a Jewish militia. Shertok, head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, insisted on January 12, 1948 at a press conference in New York that "the Jews of Palestine need a well-armed and motorized militia of 15-20 thousand people."

The events that unfolded after this forced the Jewish Agency to demand the creation of a militia of 30-35 thousand people, including aviation parts. This militia was to be created on the Kharana base, which already has some weapons and most of whose soldiers underwent military training in the ranks of the British army during the Second World War.

Jewish organizations launched a worldwide campaign to raise funds for Palestine and purchase weapons, but these efforts met with a ban on the export of military materials from the United States (confiscation of large quantities in New York) and a thorough blockade of Palestine by the English fleet. The Jews, fearing the possibility of disrupting the UN decision on Palestine due to the resistance of the Arabs, agreed and demanded the use of the UN armed forces to carry out the partition of the country.

Beginning in January 1948, Jews began to set up a provisional government for the Jewish state. The US refusal to support the decision of the General Assembly led to the fact that the Jewish Agency and the National Council decided at a joint meeting on March 23 in Tel Aviv to proclaim a Jewish state on May 16 (the day after the end of the British mandate for Palestine). At the end of March, a Jewish military cabinet was formed in Tel Aviv, into which Ben-Gurion entered. Most of the seats in the proposed government are given to the Labor Party and the right-wing bourgeois parties, which are closely associated with reactionary circles in the United States.

Jewish Agency rejects US custody offer even for a short period of time, since “guardianship would inevitably bring with it the deprivation of the Jews of the right to national independence. This would put Palestine in the hands of a foreign military regime. "

Meyerson, head of the Political Section of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem, said that "we will never agree with the trusteeship or any other decision other than the creation of a Jewish state." Jewish terrorist organizations strongly opposed the "United States betrayal of the cause of the Jews." "In the event that US troops are sent to Palestine to exercise tutelage, we will engage in a fierce struggle with them and will treat the Americans as we treated the British invaders" (Irgun Tsvai Leumi organization, March 24). “American imperialism is no different from British imperialism. We will continue to fight for a Jewish state and against all imperialist claims, even if we are forced to fight alone. But if we carefully consider the current situation, we are almost sure that we will not remain alone in our struggle” (Stern's group, March 22).

Although the Jewish Agency continues to insist on the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine in its official statements, there are symptoms that some groups of Jews are gripped by anxiety and are trying to leave Palestine, so the Jewish Agency was forced to ban Jews from leaving the country.

At the end of March 1948, the rector of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and influential politician, Dr. Marnes, urged Jews to agree to the UN trusteeship and the creation of a bi-national state.

Immigration

Despite the refusal of the mandate power to provide, according to the UN decision, a port for Jewish immigration by February 1, several steamers managed to land illegal immigrants on the Palestinian coast. On the night of December 4, 1947, a ship with 182 immigrants broke through the blockade and disembarked its passengers near Tel Aviv, while the UN ship landed 700 people north of Haifa on January 1.

The British government issues monthly 1,500 permits for Jewish immigrants held on the island of Cyprus, where all ships with immigrants approaching Palestine are sent, in particular, at the end of 1947, 2 steamers were sent there, carrying 15 thousand Jews from the Black Sea ports.

The British, having established a blockade of the Palestinian coast, deprived the Jews of the opportunity to receive more or less significant amounts of aid from abroad. England and the United States fear an influx of immigrants from Eastern European countries.

Arabs

The main Arab feudal-bourgeois organizations - the High Arab Committee * and the Arab Bureau **, inspired by the British, opposed the creation of a Jewish state and the partition of Palestine. The United Nations decisions on the Palestinian question drew strong responses in Arab circles and were marked by a three-day protest strike led by the Arab Supreme Committee. Armed uprisings against Jews unfolded with renewed vigor in December 1947 and continue to this day. Traitors and Quislin from all over the world began to flock to Palestine and took part in the struggle on the side of the Arabs, among them scum Anders, Bosnian Muslims from displaced persons camps in Germany, German prisoners of war who fled from camps in Egypt, “volunteers” from Franco Spain.

The countries of the Arab L, following the decisions of the Council of L, will send armed Arab detachments to Palestine. The first detachment entered Palestine from Syria on January 9, 1948. It consisted of Syrian, Iraqi, and Lebanese volunteers who, having attacked two Jewish settlements, were forced to retreat back to Syria. This speech was timed to coincide with the beginning of the work of the United Nations Palestinian Commission.

From January to March 1948, they crossed the Palestinian border numerous detachments of Arabs who traveled in cars and were armed with mortars and automatic rifles. For example, on January 30, 800 well-armed Arabs in 50 trucks crossed the Palestinian-Transjordan border. Arab armed groups are mainly located in the Samaria mountains, headquartered in the city of Nablus, where the commander of the Arab Volunteer Armies, Fawzi Kaukchi, is currently located.

The number of Arab troops was estimated at the beginning of March at 6 thousand people, and according to Arab sources - almost 15 thousand people. (Note. According to the Jewish Agency, there are 2,500 Syrians, 2,500 Iraqis, and several hundred Egyptians and Lebanese in Palestine.) Arab policemen leave their posts with weapons and join the Arab troops.

The Arabs get their weapons from the Arab countries, which are supplied by England. In March 1948, a mission of the Supreme Arab Committee of Palestine arrived in London to purchase weapons in the amount of 500 thousand pounds, it is expected to receive 10 thousand machine guns, etc., which will be sent to Palestine through neighboring Arab countries. In France, guns and tanks are being purchased, which will be transferred to the Palestinian Arabs through the countries of the Levant. The Transjordanian Arab Legion, maintained and under the command of the British, takes part in the battles against the Jews. Legion soldiers were guarding one of the bridges across the river. Jordan and unimpeded a detachment of 700 Arabs into Palestine. The Arab Legion is the force within Palestine with which Abdullah intends to take over the country after the end of the British Mandate on May 15.

The head of the Arab Supreme Committee is a former mufti of Palestine, who moved to Damascus in March to maintain direct contact with Arab militias in Palestine.

Although the Arabs see the change in US position on the Palestinian issue as their "moral victory," the mufti opposed the custody of Palestine and reiterated the Arab determination to fight to the end. In a March 26 message from the Arab Information Bureau, it is said that "the Arabs will agree to the establishment of guardianship only after the plan for the partition of Palestine has been finally rejected."

Only the leftist National Liberation League opposes the bloody clashes between Arabs and Jews in Palestine.

Clashes between Arabs and Jews

Armed struggle between Jews and Arabs unfolded throughout Palestine. For the first 15 days of December 1947 each side had 100 killed and several hundred wounded. On the border of the Arab city of Jaffa and the Jewish city of Tel Aviv, continuous street fighting, sniper fire and mutual raids have been going on for four months. Movement on the roads can only take place under the condition of a strong armed guard. Jewish convoys of cars between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv are attacked and plundered. The Arabs are conducting a systematic attack on Jewish settlements scattered in the southern Nerev desert, destroying the irrigation pipes, without which it is impossible to exist in this arid region.

The scope and brutality of bloody battles is growing from day to day. On December 30, 1947, Jewish terrorists committed the irresponsible act of throwing a bomb at a crowd of Arabs at the entrance to the Anglo-Iraqi Oil Company refinery in Haifa. 6 Arabs were killed and 40 were wounded. The further bloody massacre committed by the Arabs, during which 41 Jews were killed, took place in front of the factory guards carried out by the Arab Legion and British officers.

In Jerusalem, where the population is mixed, Arab-Jewish clashes reached extreme tension. The Hebrew University, the Hadassah hospital, the editorial office of the Jewish newspaper Palestine Post, the house of the former mufti of Palestine, which he handed over to Arab organizations, the Semiramis hotel (the meeting place of the Arab military organization Najada) and a number of other buildings were blown up. For several months 1,800 Jews have been under siege in the old city of Jerusalem.

This quarter, where Jewish "holy places" are concentrated, is surrounded by Arabs and the delivery of food to the besieged can only be carried out on British armored cars. The riots in Palestine led to the development of banditry and robbery, and attacks on banks and trains increased in frequency.

The US peacekeeping statement has had the opposite effect: the fighting is flaring up, the Arabs are using cannons and machine guns, and during the clash in late March, the Jewish armed forces even had several planes.

According to the official data of the British administration, in Palestine for 4 months before April 1, 1948 almost 2 thousand people were killed, including 800 Jews.

The Arabs have recently moved to systematic and planned operations against the Jewish residential areas scattered throughout the country. The residential areas located in the south of the country, in the Negev, and in the north, in Galilee, are cut off from the main Jewish population of the coastal strip, and their defense, and even more, the implementation of communication between them is an almost impossible task for the semi-legal Jewish militia. Moreover, the Jews are deprived of help from outside people, they suffer heavy losses in killed and wounded, which will have a detrimental effect on the resistance of this small (only 640 thousand people) community.

The British

The "neutral” position of the British on the Palestinian question cannot hide their aspirations, provoking the internecine struggle of Jews and Arabs, to thwart the UN decisions on the partition of Palestine and remain in Palestine as a third force, alone or together with the United States, or to transfer Palestine to the Trans-Jordanian king, who will keep it for the UK. Therefore, the British police and army are either inactive or secretly helping the Arabs in their fight against the Jews.

The Jewish newspaper Davar wrote in January 1948 that “the British want to organize chaos of this kind so that by 15 May large Arab gangs would be concentrated in the country, so that on its borders everything would be ready for an open invasion and that those who defend the UN decision, be deprived of weapons and the ability to defend themselves. "

The National Liberation League newspaper, Al-Ittihad, reported cases in which the British sought to incite Arabs against Jews; the British administration forbade reprinting this message, and the newspaper was closed on January 19.

British soldiers sell arms and ammunition to the Arab detachments, cases of "disappearance" of armored cars have become more frequent - all this is done against the backdrop of soothing statements by the British administration about its desire to preserve peace and order in the country. In fact, by opening the borders of Palestine with neighboring Arab countries (since guarding several bridges on the Jordan, through which Arabs cross in trucks, would not be an impossible task for a hundred thousandth British army), England strictly guards the seacoast, preventing Jews from getting help.

The evacuation of British troops from Palestine has hardly been began, although 4 months have already passed since the UN decision on the gradual withdrawal of the Mandatory Power's troops. Only on March 7, the first batch of 2,000 soldiers was sent.

The British, in whose hands all the values of the Palestinian people, are demanding $ 74 million from Palestinian funds to pay pensions to British officials and have taken the gold reserves of Palestine to London. In November 1947, the British administration opened trading in state land in Haifa.

Economic life in Palestine Armed clashes have paralyzed many aspects of economic life in Palestine. Railways and road transport are disorganized and transportation costs have increased significantly. There have been significant increases in food and livestock feed prices, in part due to delivery difficulties.

Palestine, unless vigorous action is taken, will face impending famine in a few months. Already now the Jews of Jerusalem receive 200 gr. bread a day. The industry suffered to a much lesser extent.

Conclusions

1. The situation of the Jews in Palestine is getting worse every day due to the lack of the opportunity to receive help in people and weapons and heavy losses that cannot be compensated due to the small number of the Jewish population in Palestine.

2. The Arabs are encouraged by the help of the Arab countries and England and the US withdrawal from supporting the UN decision. They began a systematic attack on Jewish settlements, making efforts to expand the areas of their rule and capture the city of Jerusalem.

3. The British administration provides aid to the Arabs and prevents the organization of the defense by the Jews.

Attaché BVO

A. Semioshkin

AVP RF, f. 0118, op. 2, p. 3, d. 11, l. 123-130.

Translated From Russian; Svitlana M

Continue

MINUTES RECORD OF THE SPEECH OF THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATION OF THE USSR TO THE UN A.A. Gromyko AT THE SESSION OF THE FIRST COMMITTEE A OF THE SECOND SPECIAL SESSION OF THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY

April 20, 1948

No comments

Powered by Blogger.