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Ideology of patriotism

November 14, 2011 
Tatyana Vasilyeva

Those who were born and raised in the Soviet Union remember that patriotism was an organic, integral part of the consciousness of the absolute majority of Soviet people.This concept itself had a high, exclusively positive meaning, and it was not limited to Soviet patriotism - a citizen of any country, a representative of any nation, radeyuschiy for the fate of their homeland, in whatever historical epoch he lived, drew respect and sometimes admiration. In children, they brought up love for the Motherland not only by the examples of domestic, Soviet heroes. Taras Shevchenko and Robert Burns, Angela Davis and Fidel Castro, Ernst Telman and Joan of Arc — all of them were for us first and foremost glorious representatives of their peoples, true patriots. And in understanding, in recognition of this was our internationalism. This is how these two notions –patriotism and internationalism - coinciding in essence, formed the basis of Soviet ideology.

Today, very often even the detractors of the Soviet era are forced to admit: then there was something that is so lacking in today's Russia - a common ideology that united citizens, which was a significant part of the power of our country. They probably think that this is just one of, in their opinion, the few successful decisions of the Soviet leadership. However, that ideology of patriotism was originally laid down in the theory of scientific communism. In other words, without it, not only is no socialism possible, but it itself is separate from it, in a bourgeois-liberal society, it cannot exist. All this was set forth in the works of the classics long before the attempt to implement the theory in life.

Apparently, not understanding this, or not wanting to understand, and also not finding any other suitable replacement for the ideology of patriotism , which so effectively manifested itself in the 20th century, those in power in today's Russia decided to take as a basis what has already been almost completely lost time of the collapse of the USSR. Attempts, as expected, were unsuccessful. The fact is that the guard of the bourgeois-liberal order are two irreconcilable enemies of patriotism - nationalism and cosmopolitanism. For almost 20 years now, quietly getting along in bourgeois Russia, they are waging a merciless war against patriotism , thereby creating all the conditions for preserving the existing regime, on the one hand, and not allowing the authorities to show themselves as true democrats, on the other.

The now popular term “national patriotism” deals the most painful blow to the remnants of the ideology on which the first socialist state in the world was built. Covering their nature for them, nationalists are trying to replace patriotism with vicious ideology. Cosmopolitans, in essence, do the same thing, arguing that nationalism and patriotism are one and the same. The aim of both is the same: to prevent the spread of true patriotism in multinational Russia, which is capable of sweeping both accomplices of the bourgeoisie along with the bourgeoisie itself.

Some will argue: how can patriotism be related to class struggle? And those who have developed a persistent allergy to everything connected with the last concept, will declare at all that the class that won once in this fight acted unpatriotic, and the political party that prompted it to this was entirely enemies of the Fatherland. We will not persuade them. And let them consider the real patriots of those who fled from Russia in the 17th year, and General Vlasov, not Pavku Korchagin and the Young Guard, - history has shown who we owe to the prosperity and independence of our Motherland.

The emergence and development of patriotism

What is patriotism from the point of view of materialist dialectics? Marxism-Leninism, being a dialectical doctrine, considers all phenomena of social life in interconnection and development. The emergence and development of patriotism, which Lenin defined as “one of the most profound feelings consolidated by centuries and millennia of isolated fatherlands,”is associated with the formation of nations. The first shoots of patriotism appear among the people - the historical community of people following the tribe and the preceding nation. The Russian nationality, which finally took shape in the 14th and 15th centuries, has manifestations of patriotismobserved at the very beginning of its formation - in the 12th century. Thus, the “Word of Igor's Regiment” created at that time, D. Likhachev, who was engaged in a detailed study of this work, called the first patriotic work of Russian literature. The basis of the Russian nationality, as well as the Ukrainian and Belarusian, were not pure tribes, but one common ancient Russian people, which was formed in the period of Kievan Rus from the tribal unions of Eastern Slavs. The development of the three Slavic nationalities took place under the conditions of a constant national liberation struggle against the Mongol-Tatar yoke, the Polish and Turkish aggressions, and ended at about the same time - by the 15th and 16th centuries. During these several centuries, the patriotism of each nation strengthened, which did not prevent them from finally reuniting again - first with Russians and Ukrainians, later the Belarusians added to the union.

A nation, as a historical community of people based on the commonality of their territory, economic ties, literary language, certain cultural characteristics and character, develops during the development of capitalist economic ties and the formation of a domestic market. Often it is formed not from one but from several nationalities and tribes (some tribes, bypassing the stage of nationality, become part of the nation). The development of the nation is accompanied by the further development of patriotism, which plays a huge role in the final overcoming of feudal fragmentation and the creation of separate capitalist states on the basis of nations. Cultures of various nations preserved the memory of their national heroes, in whose patriotism there is no doubt, just as in the patriotism of the whole nation as a whole, which supported this memory. Thus, nations and their inherentPatriotism is the final product of the capitalist formation — a progressive product, like the entire capitalist formation compared to the formation of feudalism.

Patriotism and the crisis of capitalism

Gradually, contradictions begin to accumulate inside capitalism. Touching above all its economic and political foundations, they are also manifested in ideology. The growing antagonism of classes leads to the aggravation of antagonisms in the national culture, which is divided into two unequal and opposite parts: bourgeois national culture and proletarian - democratic. Moreover, the bourgeois culture, designed to express and express the interests of the exploiting minority, becomes overwhelming, dominant, while the culture of the working people is manifested only in the form of individual elements. All this, as Lenin emphasized, under the conditions of capitalism allows us to call the “national culture” in general the culture of the bourgeoisie. (Note that Lenin constantly in this context takes the term “national culture” in quotes). The main ideological contradiction here is that the exploiting minority appropriates the patriotism directly associated with the national culture, which has been fixed within the nation for centuries, mainly due to the dedication and devotion to the homeland of the common people, i.e. absolute majority. In an effort to use the patriotism of the nation to their advantage, the bourgeoisie begins to artificially inflate it, bringing it to full rebirth. Patriotism, not finding the basis for further development, loses its progressive essence and gives way to nationalism — an ideology that proclaims the nation as the highest non-historical, supraclass form of community, thereby striving to cover the growing antagonism of classes within the nation. In essence, these are attempts to push the nation back into its spiritual development, to preserve, in the new economic and political conditions, those national feelings that were characteristic of the people at the earlier stages of its formation as a nation. Nationalism is especially needed by the bourgeoisie in the era of imperialism for waging wars of conquest and supporting colonial policies. Cosmopolitanism, which is much older than nationalism and now stands, ostensibly as an extreme opposite to it, not only does not struggle with nationalist ideology, but also contributes to its spread, finally killing the truepatriotism of the nation. In addition, it becomes a dangerous tool in achieving the goals of those imperialist states that seek world domination.

The imperialists very skillfully use these two ideologies. Condemning the peoples of their countries to national isolation and inter-ethnic confrontation, in the interests of their capital they act quite cosmopolitanly: international monopolies and zones of capitalist integration are being created within the framework of the world capitalist economy. Nothing patriotic in the goals and interests of the ruling class remains. Moreover, he is able to go on a direct betrayal. "... When it comes to class profits, the bourgeoisie sells its homeland and enters into bargains against its people with any foreigners ..." , - wrote Lenin. And it is impossible to disagree with him, knowing the history of capitalist states, and above all capitalist Russia.

Proletarian patriotism

“Workers have no fatherland. They can’t take away what they don’t have, ”the Communist Party Manifesto says. There is no contradiction that anti-communists like to put up as an argument. Capitalism, having completed the formation of nations and depriving them of their own interests of patriotism, in effect deprived the emerging class of proletarians of the homeland. Instead of the fatherland, the bourgeoisie is trying to offer the proletariat itself and that state power that protects its priorities. Nevertheless, the proletariat, devoid of fatherland, "is still national itself, although not at all in the sense that the bourgeoisie understands it," the Manifesto says later. “The proletariat must first of all win political dominance, rise to the position of a national class, be constituted as a nation”. This is a completely new stage in the development of the nation, and it cannot do without patriotism . Moreover, the conquest of political domination by the proletariat is the salvation of a nation that cannot exist without patriotism. Thus, it is the proletariat that carries the potential of that patriotism , which is capable not only of preserving the nation, but also of opening the way to a higher ascent.

All this could be considered only a theory if it were not confirmed by historical experience. The Russian proletariat of the early 20th century had enough patriotism to realize that Russia's participation in the First World War is detrimental to the nation. Protection of the Fatherland during the Civil War and foreign intervention demanded no less patriotism. Kopivshiysya centuries and millennia patriotism found expression in the building of socialism and was manifested in the highest degree in the Great Patriotic War. Patriotism in a striking and incomprehensible way for the world bourgeoisiea separate nation not only did not suppress the nationality of other nations, but also gave an impetus to their all-round development. Some nations that did not even have their own written language before have become full-fledged nations. What the communists were accused of when their theory was born, collapsed under the pressure of historical reality. Socialism is not afraid of nationalities. On the contrary, it creates conditions for all peoples without exception for their development and prosperity. Socialism is not afraid of patriotism, it revives it together with the nation and unites the patriotism of different nations into the patriotism of a new historical community of people.

Patriotism and modernity

In 1991, what happened happened. The patriotism of the Soviet people dictated the decision to preserve the union state. However, those whom the people entrusted the fate of their homeland, ignored this desire. Separated nations, obeying the law of self-preservation, tried to strengthen their patriotism , but these attempts came into conflict with the fact that until recently they had consolidated the union and were the basis for the existence of the Soviet people as a new historical community of people - common territory, economic ties, Russian language interethnic communication, common features of culture and even character. And instead of the rise of patriotism expected by the “leaders of the nations,” inter-ethnic discord began, both within the union republics and between them.

Russia is in the most difficult position. Having assumed the role of the successor of the Soviet Union, our country was desperately unable to cope and is not coping with its mission. Without true patriotismat the state level, even our great people cannot do this. Teaching bourgeois power to patriotism is useless. According to Lenin, she, as she should be, is always ready to enter "into bargaining deals against her people with any kind of foreigners." And for examples do not go far. In 2009, the head of state D. Medvedev in Madrid at a meeting of the Russian-Spanish forum “Dialogue of civil societies” compared the Soviet Union with the pro-fascist Spain of the times of Franco. Something he will say to our veterans on May 9? Probably the same as always: "The feat of the military generation is the absolute standard of serving the ideals of freedom, justice and good." Whether the power with such hypocrisy can count on patriotismpeople? And yet it exists - Russian patriotism. True, not in the sense that Mr. Medvedev understands it.

What society has come to, only at first glance does not fit into the theory of scientific communism. “The transition from capitalism to communism is a whole historical era. Until it is over, the exploiters inevitably have hope of restoration, and this hope turns into restoration attempts. ”- wrote Lenin. Such an attempt occurred, and with it all the laws of the existence of a capitalist society were easily and quickly restored. The current situation in Russia and the world is illustrated by the Communist Manifesto to no less an extent than the situation of the beginning of the 20th century. Despite scientific and technological progress, the economic essence of capital has not changed. The alignment of political forces in the world is, of course, somewhat different, but without redistribution of spheres of influence, imperialism cannot exist. The most noticeable are restorations in the field of interethnic relations, ideology, spiritual and moral values ​​and, in general, in culture. And again the question arises about the nature and role of patriotism .

“How much they talk, interpret, shout now about nationality, about the fatherland!” Doesn't this remind you anything? No, this is not a statement of a modern politician So begins his famous article "On the national pride of the Great Russians" V.Lenin. And he continues:"Liberal and radical ministers of England, the abyss of" advanced "French publicists [], the darkness of official, Cadet and progressive (up to some populist and" Marxist ") hacks of Russia - all in thousands of ways celebrate the freedom and independence of independence. It is impossible to make out where the venerable praiser of executioner Nikolai Romanov or the torturers of blacks and inhabitants of India ends here, where the dozen petty bourgeois begins, stupid or swimming downstream. And it does not matter to disassemble it. We have before us a very broad and very deep ideological current, the roots of which are very strongly linked with the interests of landlords and capitalists of great-power nations. Tens and hundreds of millions a year are spent on the propaganda of ideas advantageous to these classes ... ”Change millions to billions, change some names and names, and you will have an almost exact picture of today. And just like at the beginning of the 20th century, the “national pride” of present-day lovers of the fatherland from true patriotism will be far away .

Patriotic "testament" of Lenin

Was Lenin a patriot? Sure. We read further in the article:“Is the feeling of national pride alien to the great Russian conscious proletarians? Of course not! We love our language and our homeland, we are working most of all to raise its working masses (ie, 9/10 of its population) to the conscious life of democrats and socialists. It is hardest for us to see and feel how the royal executioners, nobles and capitalists expose our beautiful homeland to violence, oppression and bullying. We are proud that these violence provoked a rebuff from our environment, from among the Great Russians, that this environment put forward Radishchev, the Decembrists, revolutionaries of the 70s, that the Great Russian working class created a powerful revolutionary party of the masses in 1905, that the Great Russian peasant began at the same time becoming a democrat, began to overthrow the priest and the landowner ". However, even without this quote, it is clear that only those who knew and loved their homeland could appreciate the progressive capabilities of their country and its people.

We, modern representatives of the great-power nation, can only follow Lenin to confirm our sense of national pride, especially since we were fortunate enough to be the bearers of that true patriotism , whose enormous potential could be seen in the Russian proletariat Ilyich. Save this potential of Russian patriotism that has grown many times during the years of Soviet powerin conditions when the worst enemies of our Motherland — bourgeois liberals — are trying to teach us to cover up their shameful policy with hypocritical, supposedly patriotic phrases, it is difficult, but possible. It is not easy to resist nationalism, but only by joint efforts of progressive representatives of all nations and nationalities of multinational Russia and the former republics of the Union, it is possible to at least prevent the spread of this contagion, which can destroy all the best that the nations have saved for centuries and millennia. Opposition to modern cosmopolitanism has the same goals. The “citizen of the bourgeois world” is a mockery and mockery of working people of different nationalities, it is blasphemous fantasies to turn people into unprincipled and demoralized slaves who lose all the bases for unification and, therefore, resistance.

Patriotic Forces of Russia

Another point that is important for preserving the ideology of patriotism in Russia is the political forces that can really undertake this task. In our country there are too many parties, associations, movements of a patriotic sense. And even if they are oppositional authorities and are not a cover for nationalist organizations, each of them finds its own sources of patriotism. Perhaps such a diversity of patriotic forces is a positive factor in today's reality, but so far it does not concern the basis of this ideology. She is one - class. Patriotismcompletely inseparable from the class struggle of workers. No combinations are possible here, simply because these two concepts coincide - the class struggle of the working people is always patriotic. How many sonorous projects turned out to be simply untenable because of the neglect of this theoretically and practically proven fact! In fact, there is a force capable of uniting all sources of patriotism on one basis. This is the Communist Party, the ideology of which is spelled out in the Manifesto and the main works of Lenin. And those patriotic organizations that are ready to recognize this basis may well constitute a resource of the ideology of patriotism absolutely necessary for our country.

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